1. Raney, A. A., & Depalma, A. J. (2006). The Effect of Viewing Varying Levels and Contexts of Violent Sports Programming on Enjoyment, Mood, and Perceived Violence. Mass Communication & Society, 9(3), 321–338. doi:10.1207/s15327825mcs0903_4
The first two article were probably the most useful in my current study. They both were about media’s influence in aggression in sports. It’s turned to be a difficult task finding articles that included media influence on sports. Both articles also gave me lots of leads to other research on the subject. Consequence, both studies were conducted by Raney.
This study was about the influence of sports violence on the viewer’s enjoyment, mood, and perception of violence. Participants view videotaped sports events that included “unscripted” violence play, “scripted” violent play and no violence play. Participants complete a questionnaire measuring reactions to the video and mood level following the clips. Scripted play is closely related to media commentary that this is the subject of this study.
*Investigators concluded that participants found much more enjoyment from violent sports in the study.
*Viewers found the scripted play to be more violent than the “unscripted” play.
2. Raney, A. A., & Kinnally, W. (2009). Examining Perceived Violence in and Enjoyment of Televised Rivalry Sports Contests. Mass Communication & Society, 12(3), 311–331. doi:10.1080/15205430802468744
This study also gave me lots of leads to other research. This study also included media’s influence on spectator’s enjoyments of games, thus I was able to connect to enjoyment of aggressive.
In this study researchers investigated perceived violent and enjoyment by spectators. Participants viewed American intercollegiate football games featuring hometown teams between rival and non-rival teams. Participants were interviewed following the game.
* Researchers concluded that the higher levels of violence reported in the games, the greater the enjoyment was had by the spectators than from the games.
3. Sullivan, D. b. (1991). Commentary and viewer perception of player hostility: Adding punch to televised sports. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 35(4), 487.
This study was also helpful because it clued me into media commentaries and its influence on views perception on violence. It questions were or not the games were as violent as they were perceived or media’s commentaries that swayed viewers perception. Gave me lots of food for thought.
Researchers have examined how sports commentary can influence the perception of violence. Sullivan studied the impact of media commentary on viewers of a televised basketball game and their subsequent perception of the basketball player’s violent behavior. The participants watched videotape of a men’s college basketball game. The researchers used various types of commentary (dramatic, neutral, and no commentary). Afterward, the...