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The Era Of “Designer Drugs”: The Human Genome Project

2339 words - 10 pages

Ari Patrinos and Francis Collins combined forces in order to make the completion of the Human Genome Project possible with the fifteen year time frame. Ari Patrinos supervised the United States Department of Energy’s Human Genome Research. Francis Collins regulated the National Institute of Health National Human Genome Research Institute.
Besides the United States Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health, several universities across the United States were involved in the Project, along with various other countries. Although numerous other countries contributed to the global Project, research in the United Kingdom, China, France, Japan, and Germany played a more significant role.
In 1953, three significant people in modern genetics made a great discovery. With the finding of DNA’s double helix structure, researchers were now able to fully understand DNA. DNA’s double helix structure allowed other life sciences to be further explored. This structure was discovered by James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins.
The Sanger Centre in the United Kingdom contributed greatly to the human genome project. Thirty three percent of the work in progress genome was produced by the Centre. The other sixty percent was to be produced by the universities and research labs involved in the Project in the United States. While ninety percent of the still developing outline human genome was to be released by the year 2000, the outline was not officially published until February of 2001.
After discovering the location of three significant disease genes, Francis Collins became director of the National Institute of Health. These disease genes include those accountable for: Huntington’s disease, cystic fibrosis, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In 1990, James Watson resigned because of a major disagreement about the highly controversial debate over the patenting of genes. While Watson believed that nature’s creation, or genes, should not be treated similarly to intellectual property, his boss disagreed. Francis Collins took his place as director of the National Institute of Health in April of 2013 following Watson’s resignation nearly months before.
The Human Genome Project was a global research endeavor to determine the entire DNA sequence within the genome of a human being.
According to Merriam-Webster, a genome is all the genetic content within an organism.
The Human Genome Project officially began in 1990. Although it was budgeted in Reagan administration in 1988, formal documentation was not finalized and published by the National Institute of Health and the Department of Energy until two years later. This formal documentation suggested a five year plan for the Project. Eleven years later, a rough draft of about ninety percent of the sequence of the human genome was completed.
In 2003, the goals included in the original strategy for the Human Genome Project were either accomplished or surpassed. Ninety-nine...

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