The Ethics Of Clinical Research In The Third World By Marcia Angell

1120 words - 4 pages

Third world countries and underdeveloped nations have become the new proverbial Petri dish of experimentation and offer particular conditions which researchers would never be able to find in their home countries. This only serves to highlight the problem that inherently faces all research studies, the ethical debate in regards to the protection and rights of their subjects. Is it feasible to expect the same standards to apply in certain countries where an economical imbalance between what is possible and what is not can be the largest hurdle to overcome? These are key issues examined in the New England Journal of Medicine by author Marcia Angell, M.D., and co-authors Harold Varmus, M.D. and David Satcher, M.D. in their respective articles that consider the ethical standards that should prevail in such circumstances. Should researchers be upheld to universal standards, or are the standards more applicable in a “local” sense, where the conditions and the constraints of the location provide the context for how the principles should be applied?
Ethical violations committed on underprivileged populations first surfaced close to 50 years ago with the discovery of the Tuskegee project. The location, a small rural town in Arkansas, and the population, consisting of black males with syphilis, would become a startling example of research gone wrong. The participants of the study were denied the available treatment in order further the goal of the research, a clear violation of the Belmont Report principle of beneficence. This same problem faces researchers today who looking for an intervention in the vertical transmission of HIV in Africa, as there is an effective protocol in industrialized nations, yet they chose to use a placebo-controlled study with no use of the current protocol. Researchers are committing the same mistake as Tuskegee argues Marcia Angell, M.D. in her article “The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World”, stating that it is only ethical to use placebo-controlled studies “when there is no known effective treatment” (Angell, 847). The current protocol consists of a lengthy treatment with costly drugs, but Angell argues that despite the logistics, beneficence still applies, and the available treatment should be the standard to which all others is measured against. There is also the guiding of issue of not only ensuring that subjects are not treated as just a minimal part of the ultimate goal, but ensuring that the subjects' well-beings be the primary concern for researchers as well. Yet, the available treatment is being withheld, leaving the placebo-controlled group without any treatment at all.
The justification is weak at best, Angell says, with researchers claiming that the placebo-group would not be receiving the necessary treatment anyway, so they are simply observing the natural manifestation of the infection in the mother and infant that would occur regardless of the study. Yet, if there is a shift in ethical reasoning...

Find Another Essay On The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World by Marcia Angell

Government Corruption in the Third World

1326 words - 6 pages People in third world country’s suffer under the hands of their corrupt leaders things like this happen in the united states, but they are not as noticeable as they are elsewhere. In third world countries like Syria, there is a lot of injustice in many things especially in the government. In certain instances, they call themselves a democracy and don't let their people vote in important decisions. Government corruption is a huge problem that

Developing the Third World Essay

2218 words - 9 pages services offered by microfinance have the ability to promote economic development in poverty stricken families in the ‘third world’. Microfinance can be seen to promote the development of the third world through the alleviation of poverty, empowerment of women and increase their involvement in their economy. The mass momentum achieved by microcredit as a development strategy has cause discussion about its effectiveness in promoting development

Feeding The Third World

4101 words - 16 pages Feeding The Third World Millions of people today, despite technological advances enabling fish and meat production and crop yields to soar, are still living in hunger. It is estimated that nearly 30% of the world's population suffer from some form of malnutrition, and the majority of these people live in Developing Countries. Intensive and Subsistence Farming both present possible solutions to dealing with world hunger

The Plight of Third World Child Laborers

1314 words - 5 pages longer hours, and deal with unsafe and unhealthy work conditions, as compared to the US and other first world nations. These products that cost only a few cents to make, are then sold for a highly marked up price in malls and stores across the world. As a matter of fact, much of the merchandise produced by U.S. companies and sold to U.S. consumers is manufactured by third world workers (Human Rights Watch). Child laborers in third world

The world banks role in developing third world countries.

702 words - 3 pages Research Question: Third World countries are often criticised for developing without considering the environment, as a result the destruction of natural rainforests and animal habitat is increasing at a rapid pace. Nevertheless the IMF and The World Bank continue to lend money to third world countries that use the money to finance environmentally destructive projects in a bid to develop quicker, should the World Bank and IMF be held accountable

The New Famine. Debate of causes of hunger in the third world today.

4625 words - 19 pages underdeveloped or third-world countries—or any place not considered a “superpower”. Conditions are bleak within this environment and poverty also prevails. Either the economies have failed for various reasons, or the wealth is unevenly distributed. Most of the workforce is displaced; unable to produce a viable income from lack of resources, or they cannot compete in local or global markets. Some participate in local industry but do not make enough

Archaeologica Ethics in the World

1954 words - 8 pages Introduction We have been spared the recent memory of global wars, such as the First World War, but armed conflict on a national or regional scale and sectarianism continues uninterrupted by the efforts of international politics and undeterred by legal protections. In March 2003 the United States and a Coalition of nations began the Iraq War (Eck and Gerstenblith 2004:469-470). The Coalition avoided targeting cultural sites and moments, to

Ethics Of The Hellenistic World

1243 words - 5 pages confirmed by observing the obvious behavior of infants, who instinctively pursue pleasure and shun pain. The truth in this is also found in the behavior of adults, but in adults it is more difficult to see that this truth, since they have much more complicated beliefs about what will bring them pleasure. This hedonism was widely denounced in the ancient world as undermining traditional morality. "The trouble with Epicureanism is its assumption

Western Feminism is Promoting Colonialism in the Third World

1678 words - 7 pages feminism thinks that all people of Third World countries are alike and the mainly white female feminists of all places try to prove this using similar research. In order to prove that white feminists generalize people of different races and cultures, Mohanty writes, “I would like to draw attention to the remarkably similar effects of various analytical categories and even strategies which codify their relationship to the Other in implicitly

Assess some of the ways in which Third World Debt might be reduced.

988 words - 4 pages burden that is draining much-needed foreign exchange that could otherwise be used by debtor countries for health care, education, housing and other needed services. It must address the crying need for capital and empowerment at the grassroots in developing countries and interrupt the cycle of debt payments and new debt that links the interests of first world elites and third world elites. Up till now, conditionality has been a tool used by first

The Generation of Ozone for Water Purification in Third World Countries

798 words - 3 pages The Generation of Ozone for Water Purification in Third World Countries Ozone is the O3 molecule formed through the combination of molecular and atomic oxygen. It can be used to remove iron, pesticides, detergents, color, ammonia and other nitrogen derivatives from water. Ozonation is a process used worldwide to render water potable. Although using ozone for disinfection can be expensive and inconvenient, it has, among others, the

Similar Essays

Analysis Of The Great Illusion, By Norman Angell

2783 words - 11 pages and trade, Europe had a great deal to gain by trade with China, and had the military power to force the Qing dynasty into leasing land to foreign powers on which trade could take place. Angell is correct in pointing out, first, that no number of dreadnoughts would force Chinese to buy products they did not want with money they did not have, and secondly, that military invasion cannot change the cultural values and practices of an established

Conflicts In The Third World Essay

1372 words - 5 pages In this essay I will discuss why the Third World has been the sight of most of the world's conflicts since 1945. The conflicts that have transpired have been mostly internal and not just between these countries and their neighbors. They range in wars regarding religion, liberation, rebelling, and civil wars to name a few. I will consider these conflicts and their make up in regards to countries involved in the most serious conflicts along

Growth In The Third World Essay

1863 words - 7 pages more atomic bombs in their own country alone, than all other countries have detonated bombs, combined. The US, similar to most countries in the world, has always had the constant necessity to discover and harness new forms of power. The problem is that their desire to be more powerful has come at the cost of nature and the people inhabiting it. Between 1946 and 1954, three nuclear bombs were detonated by the US in the area of the Marshall Islands

The Invisible Revolution In The Third World

1864 words - 8 pages then Ecuador because of their border agreement issues but Second World War made Peru undergone most far-reaching change in its history as a republic. This change wasn’t an isolated nor a planned event but a succession of millions of incidents which have gradually transformed a seemingly immutable order. This change occur during the time period of dictatorship because in the Peruvian history, military rule was overwhelmed by dictators from 1968