How the EU represents supra-nationalism which is having authority and jurisdiction above national governments? What institution in the EU represents this trend?
European Union is one the world’s most dramatic examples of economic and political integration. A total of 27 states are compromising their national sovereignty by transferring many areas of their decision-making and authority to a supranational organization. We cannot call the European Union a nation-state because it lacks core responsibility, legal rights and cannot use coercion or punish those who disobey its law, directives and regulations. However, its operation and authority over some economic, political and legislative fields are supra-national and beyond the control of the member states.
The idea of an economic growth and integration in Europe led overtime to market integration among European states. Then, it pressured states to increase political cooperation which spurred the creation of a federation of European states and a shared currency.
Between 1993 and 2009, the European Union legally consisted of three pillars. The Community Pillar, one of the three pillars, dealt with supranational initiatives and actions. In December 2009 with the entry of the Treaty of Lisbon, the Community Pillar eventually abandoned. Since then, the European Commission, the European Court of Justice and the European Parliament are acting as supranational bodies or institutions of the European Union.
The European Commission with a regulatory power has exclusive right to propose legislation. Its legislation comes in two forms, directives and regulations. Directive requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result which give states some degree of autonomy. While, regulations apply to all member states and are automatically in effect. Regulations become European law without requiring adoption by national legislature.
Furthermore, the European Commission overseas the adoption of community law and policy into national law. In this case, the European Union law is supreme and takes precedence over national laws of the member states. To compare, we can say that the European law is almost like a codified constitution law of a sovereign state where all other laws subordinate the constitution law. Once, regulations are promulgated it would be followed and obeyed by all members which makes the European Union a supranational organization.
The European Commission has exclusive decision-making power on external commercial policy, agriculture, environment, internal market, and single currency. It proposes its decisions to the European Parliament and to the Council of Ministers for approval.
The European Court of Justice is another institution of the European Union that almost acts like a supranational institution. The ECJ has the right of judicial review over the interpretation of the EU treaties and over the secondary legislation...