1335 words - 5 pages

Sophistication has advanced as people learnt new ways of developing various physical resources such as materials, forces and energies. The history of computer technology has involved an order of changes of physical understanding, from gears and relays to valves to transistors and integrated circuits and so on. Today's advanced lithographic methods can squeeze portion of micron wide logic gates and buses onto the surface of silicon chips. Soon they will carry even smaller parts and eventually get to a point where logic gates are so minute that they are built out of a handful of atoms.

On the atomic level matter adheres to the rules of quantum mechanics, which are different from the conventional rules that govern the properties of orthodox logic gates. So if computers are built smaller in the future, quantum technology must act as a substitute for or enhance what we have now. Quantum technology can offer much more than shoving more bits to silicon and increasing the clock-speed of microprocessors. It can sustain an entirely new kind of computation with advanced algorithms based on quantum principles.

Quantum computing is a significant section of the new and quickly evolving field of quantum information processing and communication. This field deals with representations and approaches of computing, algorithms, communication procedures, innate complexity considerations, cryptography protocols, and so on, for situations where by quantum objects, and not the traditional ones, are the bearers of information.

Research in quantum information processing has already been conveyed, compared with the traditional case, quicker algorithms for some important algorithmic problems, but not for all such problems; fundamentally new cryptographic machineries, basically better communication approaches; and invincible simulation tools. It also displayed the potential to generate protocols for some endeavors, such as teleportation, which are impossible where only the traditional world phenomena are used.

Quantum Computers: The Definition.

Generally, one could say that a quantum computer is a computer that binds the power of atoms and molecules to carry out memory and processing tasks. It has the ability to perform certain calculations billions of times faster than any silicon based computer. However, like all other computers, a quantum computer is a device for computation, but it makes direct use of the quantum mechanical ideology, such as superposition and entanglement, to do operations on data.

The build and components of the quantum computer.

In the traditional model of a computer, the most basic building block, the bit, can only occur in one of two dissimilar states, a 0 or a 1. The case is different with quantum computers. A qubit can exist in the conventional 0 and 1 states, but can also be a superposition of both. In this lucid state, the bit exists as a 0 and a 1 in a unique manner. Considering a register of three orthodox bits, it would be possible to...

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