This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Evolution Of Gender Detection Protocols In Bioarchaeological Studies

2473 words - 10 pages

Accurate gender attribution has always been a priority in forensic casework and has always concerned the archeologists. Characteristics of forensic DNA samples analysis are similar to that of ancient DNA, small quantities of workable molecules being the main resemblance. The most frequently used markers for molecular sex attribution are the single copy gene for amelogenin located on X (AMELX) and Y (AMELY) chromosomes. Worldwide used sex determination kits were designed based on amelogenin genes amplification, especially useful in forensic casework. Sometimes these sex tests fail due to allelic dropout. New molecular markers for sex identification are constantly developed to overcome this problem. Another issue characteristic for ancient DNA studies is the contamination of samples with modern molecules of DNA. The accuracy of sex tests for ancient DNA studies depends on the possibility to discriminate between authentic ancient DNA and modern contaminant DNA.
Keywords: physical anthropology, sex attribution, molecular sex attribution, AMELX, AMELY, ancient DNA.
Correct sex identification has always been preoccupying archeologists or anthropologists and has major importance in forensic casework for nowadays population. In past populations, the status of man and woman significantly varied and the dynamics of relations between sexes changed during time. Physical anthropology may work out identifying with a higher degree of certainty the gender of skeletal remains by analyzing a few markers that indicate the sex.
The most common physical markers are the skull and the pelvis. Skull features tend to be more robust in the man than the female and the sub pubic region presents important differences due to the fact that females are capable of giving birth (Buikstra, 1994). The pelvic region markers are more reliable in sex attribution compared to those on the skull. These protocols however show no results when infant remains are analyzed. Alternative methods regarding tooth crown diameter in deciduous (Black, 1978) or permanent teeth (Cardoso, 2008) were developed for sex identification of immature individuals.
All anthropological data tend to be influenced by the observer’s subjectivity and cannot be obtained when fragmentary remains are analyzed. Considering these limitations, a molecular sex test can provide additional information. Of course molecular methods have their own limitations regarding DNA’s status of preservation or its contamination with modern molecules, but, in connection with traditional anthropological methods can offer a bigger picture, more complete picture.
Sex tests based on the amelogenin gene
The interest in ancient human DNA extraction and molecular analysis begins at the end of the 1980’s, when ancient Egyptian mummy DNA was cloned (Pääbo, 1985). Since then, new extraction techniques were developed in order to overcome the degradation process that DNA suffers over time and the contaminants...

Find Another Essay On The Evolution of Gender Detection Protocols in Bioarchaeological Studies

An Advanced Grammatical Evolution Approach for Intrusion Detection in Manet

1347 words - 6 pages 4. AN ADVANCED GRAMMATICAL EVOLUTION IN INTRUSION DETECTION ON MANETS 4.1 Attacks In this paper, we use grammatical evolution to evolve intrusion detection programs for known attacks against routing protocols on MANET. ODMRP is one of the most important protocol in on demand multicast routing protocols on MANET. 4.1.1 Black hole attack Black hole attack is a attack in which malicious node advertises itself as having

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

1318 words - 5 pages The Jews Did It! Introduction: Jew Wrote the Protocols??? The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a most controversial document. This mysterious work is not controversial in the matter of does it exist, but why does it exist? Was this document a legitimate attempt by the Zionists to define their plan for world domination? Or perhaps the author was just someone with a strong dislike towards the Jewish people, and was looking for a specific

Probabilistic Detection of the Flood Attackers in Disruption Tolerant Networks

2481 words - 10 pages (private) keys from the identity. Since, in secret-key cryptography, the security relies on the keys, this operation can only be performed by a PKG. This PKG also serves as an arbitrator when disputes arise due to a user denying certain actions. 2.3 BASIC IDEA: CLAIM-CARRY-AND CHECK 2.3.1 Packet Flood Detection To detect the attackers that violate their rate limit L, count the number of unique packets that each node as a source has generated

The Evolution of Color Perception and Gender Differences

2482 words - 10 pages the perception of color but are innate difference in genders one of those aspects? According to the research done in this area of study thus far, gender is indeed a factor in the perception of color shades. There are three main focus areas for the research and studies that have been done. The evolution of color perception eventually lead to practical differences between the genders. Many studies have also found that males and females respond

The Evolution of Evolution

1419 words - 6 pages introduction of evolution leads the theory to be the base of biology and changes the minds of people all over the world. Firstly, before the theory of evolution, there was the idea of humans being created by God. For example, in Greek mythology it was believed that man was created by Prometheus (The creation of man by Prometheus, 2014). In Christianity, it was believed that God created humans, in the bible it states: “God created man in His own

Continuing in the Field of Ethnic Studies

1121 words - 4 pages into education and can hold back a student from completing a high school diploma or a college degree. I have also done extensive research on the Chicana and the barriers that they face while perusing a college degree. This is what brings me to try to pursue an education in ethnic studies. My field of focus at the graduate level would be in regards to gender roles among Chicano/a community. I would concentrate in studying theories of race and

The Masking of History: The Misunderstanding of Gender and Race Studies

1880 words - 8 pages Historical analysis has multiple approaches which often depend on correlating subfields of history. Understanding the subfield in which a historian is writing illuminates the subject and clarifies historical context. Although, the subfields of gender and race studies differ in how they emerged they share similar elements which can shape how historical recording can be negatively influenced. By analyzing how gender, whose origins are messy and

The Use Of Quotation In Cultural Studies

561 words - 2 pages When you are writing assignments, it is extremely important that you do not copy from course materials, books, journal articles, book reviews, the Internet "“ in fact, any source that you have not written yourself! To copy is called plagiarism, and this occurs when: * the writer copies the writing of someone else word for word * the writer does not acknowledge who the writer is with a reference * the writer does not acknowledge where the

Early Stages Detection of Asthma in Children

1022 words - 4 pages parents may not be able to understand it properly. Thus it is very important for parents to understand and make timely detection of asthma in order to manage it successfully. A full proof management and controlling method goes a long way to ensure a trouble free lifestyle for young asthmatics. What could be the possible reason? There are a number of reasons why asthma in children starts. The main culprit is inheritance. If either of the

Legal Studies- Women (status, changing needs, gender bias in the Australian legal system)

1122 words - 4 pages insufficient tax relief, childcare, lack of education and the inconsistency existent between male and female wages. c)To what extent is there gender bias in the culture, processes and practices of the legal system? The number of women in the judiciary, in other positions of legal authority, and in the legal profession is minimal compared to the number of men. It was not until after the late 1980's that female law graduates totalled the number of

Identify and critically assess the application of key Indigenous protocols in the Australian Public Relations (PR) Industry

2804 words - 11 pages 1 IntroductionThis report intends to identify and critically assess the application of key Indigenous protocols in the Public Relations (PR) Industry, and in doing so determine whether genuine attempts have been made in the PR sector to respond to Indigenous concerns which relate to the themes of•Representation and Identity•Social Justice, Human Rights and Indigenous Voices.These themes are vitally important to the increased

Similar Essays

The Evolution Of Gender Roles And Its Role In Society

1996 words - 8 pages When thinking of gender roles in society, stereotypes generally come to mind. Throughout history these stereotypes have only proven to be true. Major historical events have had a huge impact on the way men and women are seen and treated. In this way, women have always been secondary to males and seen as the fragile counterparts whose job is to take care of the household and most importantly, be loyal to her husband no matter the circumstance

Evolution Of Gender Language Essay

673 words - 3 pages The Evolution of Gender Neutrality in the English Language: Abridged As a society evolves and changes, it’s language mutates and conforms to changing needs. Words form to define new things, archaic terms drop from use, and meanings change as different usage contexts develop. In the English language, this phenomenon is noticable in the shrinking use of gender specific vocabulary. Gender-biased language became a significant social concern in the

Evolution Of Gender Roles Essay

1115 words - 5 pages strengths and weaknesses of each gender. “The masculinity helped male gender to dominate the society and made them authoritative in families.”(Prokerala 1). Ever since social life has been established, men have had this same role: Diaz 2 grow strong, learn to survive, and protect his family. And if men ever failed to do any of this or fall short of these conjectures, they become ostracized from society and repellant from the opposite

The Problems Of Sociolinguistic Studies Of Gender Differences

2418 words - 10 pages The Problems of Sociolinguistic Studies of Gender Differences Introduction It has long been assumed that women and men differ in their use of language. These differences are supposed to represent (and perpetuate) the social divisions between women and men. Few researchers will disagree that women and men’s speech styles are different, though they may disagree as to what extent or as to what these differences may mean