The history of computers initially started with humans using tools like pebbles and notches in sticks to count objects. The human aspect of computers is that they wanted a way to do calculations, which includes adding and multiplying multiple numbers. The manual calculator was one of beginning stages of computer history, even though humans were the ones who had to perform the calculations. The manual computer had the abacus, which was a frame that contains beads mounted on rods. This technology was used in Rome, Greece, India, China, and Japan.
In 1623, Wilhem Schicard, a college professor, developed the first mechanical calculator. It performed by itself, although a human had to enter the numbers. Later, a mathematician named Charles Babbage designed a general purpose calculator that was called an Analytical Engine. The concept of this computer was to modernize by having memory, processor and an output device. The information was on punch cards and allowed the user to define and enter programs.
In the 1890’s, metal rods were used to read cards or data was introduced by Herman Hollerith, a statistician, with the U.S Bureau of the Census. Hollerith was the first American to use that device. He later founded the Tabulation Machine Company. The tabulation of numbers soon became the way of sorting and counting cards. Tabulating also became the way of doing business for many companies.
In 1936 Konrad Zuse designed the Z1 computer, which was the first freely programmable computer. In 1942, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry started the ABC Computer which was first in the computing business – although it was not always easy as ABC. In 1944, Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper invented the Harvard Mark 1 computer.
In 1946 John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly developed the ENIVAC 1. This computer marketed 20,000 vacuum tubes. In 1948, Fredrick Williams and Tom Kilburn were the founders of the Manchester Baby Computer and Williams Tube Company. That computer was innovative in developing memory in computers.
These inventors and entrepreneurs set the stage for the development of the current personal computers. During the 1950s, UNIVAC was established as the first digital computer. J.Preper and John Mauchly were the backers of UNIVAC, although they saw this computer to be commercially sound as a masterpiece. Remington Rand Corporation was first in the manufacture of this product. The UNIVAC was seven feet high and fourteen feet long. The data that it could read was 7,000 characters per second and its RAM was 12Kilo-Bytes. Also it stored and retrieved information using a magnetic tape.
The year 1945 was a critical moment for defining the nature of technology. John Napier invented a device called the “Napier Bones”. His device was able to perform multiplication and division. William Oughtred was a mathematician who used the same principle that John Napier used to construct the first slide rule. These tools were used until the 1960’s....