The Expansion Of The Islamic Empire Under The First Four Caliph

696 words - 3 pages

After the death of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, the people of Islam needed a ruler to guide Islam. A group of elders came together and choose a deputy known as a caliph, who would guide Islam. The first caliph was Abu Bakr, a merciful man. The second caliph was Umar ibn al-Khattab, who called himself the " Commander of Faithful, " (Amir al Mu'minin). The third caliph was Uthman ibn Affan. Finally, the fourth caliph was Ali ibn Abi Tāli who have always wanted this position from the beginning. The Islamic Empire accomplished many achievements and expanded under the four rightly guided caliphs.

The elders chose Abu Bakr as a caliph after Mahummad died. He was a caliph from 632 - 634. Muhammad’s cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib says that he should be the successor of Muhammad because he announced it at a small village. Ali did not have any proof the Mahummad said that, so the elders did not vote Ali as caliph. Over his career, he had to deal with the Ridda. The Ridda is a group of people who were rebellious against the Islamic Empire. They do not pay taxes and some elders of the Ridda even lied about being a prophet. Abu-Bakr fought against the Ridda with the Islamic army and won, but Abu-Bakr showed mercy. Many members of the Ridda joined the Islamic religions and respected Abu-Bakr. After the defeat of the Ridda, Abu-Bakr planned expansion of the Islamic Empire based Muhammad’s plans but never lived to execute it when he died in 634. Right before he died, he named his successor, Umar ibn al-Khattab, so he does not repeat the same confusion that Muhammad caused.

Abu Bakr chose Umar ibn al-Kattab. He started in 634-644. Umar defeated the Persians and then he then expanded the Islamic Empire to Persia, Iraq, Syria, North Africa and the Byzantine Empire. Instead of hurting the people of captured areas, he respected them and treated them generously. He even respected the Christians and the Jews by helping them build churches. People see Abu as a person with self integrity, frugality, and a sense of...

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