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The Costs Of Cigarette Smoking. Essay

1225 words - 5 pages

The Costs of Cigarette Smoking

Cigarette smoking causes a variety of life threatening diseases,
including lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease. In the UK about
120,000 people die each year due to smoking. A half of all smokers die
from smoking related diseases.0

There are many ingredients in tobacco smoke which are harmful to our
health in different ways.1

Some of the ingredients are tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine and other
chemicals and additives such as ammonia, arsenic (a poison used in
insecticides and weed killers), benzene, hydrogen cyanide and many
other.2

Tar deposits on the lungs can cause lung diseases. Carbon monoxide and
other chemicals reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and
plays a significant role in the development of smoking-related heart
disease and damaged various parts of the body such as blood vessels.3*
Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict, raises blood pressure,
increases heart rate and increases the hearts demand for oxygen and it
stimulates then nervous system.4 This is the ingredient that leads
people to become addicted to smoking.5

Smoking has harmful effects on all parts of our body. Smoking during
pregnancy reduces the amount of oxygen that crosses the placenta to
the baby and it also leads to an increased risk of miscarriages,
premature births and sudden infant death syndromes (cot deaths).6

Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or
both of the lungs. While normal lung tissue cells reproduce and
develop into healthy lung tissue, these abnormal cells reproduce
rapidly and never grow into normal lung tissue.7 Lumps of cancer cells
(tumour) then form and disrupt the lung, making it difficult to
function properly. More than 87% of lung cancers are smoking related.8
Smoking also increases the risks of developing mouth cancer, lip
cancer and cancer of the throat (pharynx).9Chest infections, asthma
and throat infections are more common in smokers. 10

Emphysema is an irreversible lung disease associated with chronic
bronchitis and excessive coughing.11 In emphysema, the air sacs in the
lungs are enlarged and damaged.12 This reduces the surface area of the
lung available for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Severe
emphysema causes breathlessness which is made worse by infections. It
is estimated that smoking is associated with 75% of deaths from
emphysema.13

The chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of the blood vessels.14
This helps in the build up of fatty material along the inner lining o
the arteries, this is known as Atheroma (sometimes called 'hardening'
or 'furring' of the arteries).15 Atheroma is the main cause of heart
disease, it is also a cause stroke due to damage to the brain
arteries.16 Atheroma in the blood vessels of the penis causes
impotence in man.17...

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