The Activity Of Sodium Potassium Active Transport With Respect To The Concentration Of Cytoplasmic Sodium

867 words - 3 pages

Due to the nature of amphotericity and the conformation of plasma membrane, large or ionic molecules can not permeate through plasma membrane freely. To help with those transportations, protein involved transports are adopted. One of which is active transport, that uses energy to move substrates against electrochemical gradient. Among many active transport cases, sodium potassium transportation has been most widely studied for it is expressed in virtually all cells of higher organisms (Austgen 2003).The Na,K-ATPase, a P-type ATPase family member (Kaplan 2002), also known as sodium pumper (Kaplan 2002), is the transporter protein that exchanges sodium and potassium. Na, K-ATPase is composed of two subunits: α-subunit and β-subunit (Kaplan 2002). Different ATPases vary with their α-subunit. Depending on cellular environment and cell function, there are four α-subunit isoforms: α1, α2, α3, and α4 (Takahashi et al. 2004), and different forms of α-subunit are encoded from different genes and with minor difference on amino acid sequences (Kaplan 2002). The mechanism of Na-K active transport has been widely studied, and the over all reaction can be described as by consuming energy retrieved from hydrolyzing one ATP, three intracellular sodium ions are exchanged with two extracellular potassium ions.Study has shown that the ATP hydrolysis caused by sodium potassium active transport varies a lot. In resting human cells, only 25% of all cytoplasmic ATP is hydrolyzed by sodium potassium transport, whereas in nerve cells such as lens cells, the number is as high as 70% (Austgen 2003). The reason for this discrepancy is suspect to be the difference of Na-K ATPase activity. Even in cells from a same organ, the activities vary a lot: epithelium and fiber, two cell types in the lens, have very different Na-K ATPase activities, and the activity is much higher in the epithelium (Delamere 2003). However, experimental evidence expresses a similar amount of Na-K ATPases in both cell membranes (Delamere 2003). Therefore, the abundance of ATPase should not affect the activity of active transport (Delamere 2003). On the other hand, one experiment illustrates the activity of ATPase is affected by the concentration of cytoplasmic sodium.In the experiment Delamere performed in 1996, amphotericin B was used to increase the cytoplaismic sodium content of porcine lens cells, which normally expresses α1-Na-K ATPase (Delamere 2003). Five lens tissue samples, marked with control, 1, 2, 3 and 4, were incubated in five cultures that has amphotericin B concentration 0, 1, 1, 5 and 10 (μM) separately. Except sample 1 was incubated for only 12 hours, all other samples were incubated for 24 hours. After designated incubation time, all epithelium cells on lens tissues that had been treated with amphotericin B...

Find Another Essay On The Activity of Sodium-Potassium Active Transport with respect to the Concentration of Cytoplasmic Sodium

Investigating the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

1644 words - 7 pages Investigating the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric AcidDiagramAim : We did 4 experiments to find out how the rate of reaction changes with differing concentrations of Sodium Thiosulphate, Hydrochloric Acid and water. As an inert and stable liquid, water was used to alter concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate without changing the end amount of solution. All the atoms in a water molecule have a full outer shell, so they

How the rate of reaction changes in a reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate

1118 words - 4 pages Chemistry coursework:An investigation of the affect of the concentration an of the rate of reaction.Introduction.We are trying to find out the affect of acid concentration on the rate of reaction, we are using 2, 1.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 Molar acid. In our experiment, we are reacting it with sodium thiosulphate. The collision theory will be involved in this, for instance the more concentrated the acid we use, the faster the reaction will occur and the

Water of crystallization Aim:<Tab/>Prepare a standard solution of hydrated sodium borate to find the number of moles of water of crystallisation

1145 words - 5 pages measured hydrated sodium borate to the 250 cm3 beaker then find the mass of the weighing bottle once again to see how much of the compound was actually movedAdd small amounts of distilled water into the beaker while constantly stirring the water with the stirring rod and crushing the compound with the rubber end. Repeat until compound is fully dissolved (make sure the solution does not rise over 250cm3)Rinse the volumetric flask with distilled water

Investigation of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

629 words - 3 pages The purpose of this investigation is to record the amount of time taken for a reaction to occur when sodium thiosulphate is mixed with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + S + SO2 +H2O Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), after reacting with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) produces yellow sulphur, which is the cause of the solution becoming cloudy. The amount of time taken for the reaction to occur is known

Factors that affect the rate at which Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) reacts with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)

780 words - 3 pages I am to investigate the factors that affect the rate at which Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) reacts with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). When sodium thiosulfate is mixed with hydrochloric acid, a reaction takes place, leading to a precipitate of sulphur being formed. This turns the solution cloudy. I shall use this clouding to investigate a factor that affects the rate of reaction, the factor being temperature. To do this, I shall react

Investigating Reaction Rates of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

2235 words - 9 pages Investigating Reaction Rates of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid Aim: To investigate the rate of reaction of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid. In this investigation I will be varying the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate only and not the Hydrochloric acid concentration. In this investigation I will use the following word equation: Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid In this

Rates of Reaction - Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid

1973 words - 8 pages less sodium particles that react with the acid. My experiment is time based and I will not have enough time to go lower. I took 10 concentrations in the preliminary test already, and this should show enough of a trend already, so there is no need to do an even lower concentration, as it would not help my experiment in any way. Apparatus: · 100ml conical flask · Stopwatch · Thermometer · Different size measuring cylinders(5ml, 10ml, 50ml) · Piece

Pervaporative Separation of Methanol/Methyl tert-butyl ether Mixtures with Polyion Complex Composite Membranes of Sodium alginate/Chitosan

2134 words - 9 pages cellulose acetate by Air Products [1, 2]. Since then, efforts have been devoted to producing the optimal membrane material for pervaporation separation of alcohol/ether mixtures [1, 2, 3]. In the similar attempt conducted by Kim et al., [2], pervaporative separation of this azeotropic mixtures showed an excellent selectivity and enhanced permeability with the incorporation of sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CS) to form polyion complex (PIC

An investigation into the factors affecting the rate of a reaction: The write up of an experiment using Sodium Thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

2964 words - 12 pages the concentration of the Sodium Thiosulphate by diluting it with water but I plan to keep the same volume of liquid in the beaker to ensure that it is a fair test because the volume of liquid in the beaker may affect the reaction time. Also in order to make it a fair test I am going to keep the following variables the same: the temperature; the volume of the hydrochloric acid; the same distance between the light sensor and the solution; the same

Investigating Solubility How does the solubility of Potassium Chloride and Potassium Iodide in water, vary with temperature?

1299 words - 5 pages Apparatus100g of Potassium Chloride100g of Potassium Iodide10ml cylinderTest tubes x 15StoppersGlass rodBeakers x 5Distilled waterSpatulaHot plateIce - to cool down the waterThermometer (0°C to 100°C) x 2MethodIn this experiment different amount of solute were combined with 10ml of water (solvent) which originally was at 0°C. The solvent and solute were mixed together and the temperature where the solute is completely dissolved to the

The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase

1896 words - 8 pages -2.97 Cm3 Oxygen produced per second, which is an increase of 1.8 times. I would expect the rate to increase two times if the Hydrogen Peroxide concentration is increased two times because there are twice as many substrate molecules which can join onto the enzymes active sites. The reason that the number is less than two times could be put down to the fact that at 16% the Enzyme's active sites may already be close to being saturated with Hydrogen

Similar Essays

Comparing The Solubility's Of Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride And Potassium Nitrate

1121 words - 4 pages Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and potassium nitrateBackground InformationMolecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in water. However, they both dissolve in different ways.The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution. It takes energy to

Explanations Of The Major Elements: Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Iron And Zinc.

1424 words - 6 pages definitive link has been established. Protein-deficient diets and use of tobacco may lead to sulfur deficiency, but since most Western diets are high protein, they probably supply an adequate amount of sulfur.Sodium (Na)Sodium is one of the most abundant elements in nature. It is usually seen in combination with one or more elements and is chemically very active. About half of the sodium found in the body is In soft tissues. Sodium plays an

The Effects Of Change In Concentration On The Rate Of Reaction Between Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid.

1764 words - 7 pages stopwatch is stopped and the time recorded.4. These steps are to be repeated but the concentration of sodium thiosulphate will be varied. This will be done by mixing different volumes of the original sodium thiosulphate solution with water.5. The whole procedure is repeated twice more and an average value calculated. The average will give a good summary of results for the experiment. It will also make the results more credible, removing any

The Factors Controlling The Rate Of The Sodium Thiosulphate And Acid Reaction

4099 words - 16 pages The Factors Controlling the Rate of the Sodium Thiosulphate and Acid Reaction Planning I am investigating the factors controlling the rate of thiosulphate / acid reaction. The reaction that will be taking place will follow the rate at which sulphur is formed in the reaction of sodium thiosulphate with dilute hydrochloric acid. In the experiment the sulphur will appear as an extremely fine precipitate. This will