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The Factors Controlling The Rate Of The Sodium Thiosulphate And Acid Reaction

4099 words - 16 pages

The Factors Controlling the Rate of the
Sodium Thiosulphate and Acid Reaction

Planning

I am investigating the factors controlling the rate of thiosulphate /
acid reaction. The reaction that will be taking place will follow the
rate at which sulphur is formed in the reaction of sodium thiosulphate
with dilute hydrochloric acid. In the experiment the sulphur will
appear as an extremely fine precipitate. This will slowly be followed
by a milky appearance in the reaction mixture in the conical flask. As
the amount of the sulphur in the mixture increases, the precipitate
will become milkier. Gradually the liquid will become more and more
opaque. To investigate the rate of the reaction, we will use the cross
idea. A cross will be placed under the conical flask and when it
cannot be seen anymore, because the liquid is opaque, I will know that
the reaction is completed. In the experiment I will change the
thiosulphate concentration but I will keep the temperature and
concentration of hydrochloric acid constant at all times.

The equation for the experiment is as simple as the experiment:

[IMAGE]Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCL(aq) S(s) + S02(g) + 2NaCl(aq) + H20(I)

There are five factors that will affect the rate of a given reaction,
however, only two of these needs to be considered in this experiment.
These five factors are temperature, concentration, surface area,
pressure and catalysts. Only the effect of a change in concentration
and temperature will change the rate. The surface area would only be a
factor in an experiment when a reagent is a solid and so the reaction
had taken place between a gas/solid or a solution/solid and the two
reagents are both liquids. Pressure, as a factor in an experiment
would only occur if a gas were present. As the reagents used are
solutions, gas pressure will not make any difference. Finally a
catalyst (a substance which increases the rate of chemical reaction,
but is not used up in the process) as a factor can only be considered
if there is a catalyst for the reaction. As there are no catalysts for
this reaction it cannot be a factor. This leaves concentration and
temperature. These are the two factors that we are able to talk about.

Firstly we must consider the effect of concentration as a variable. If
I increase the number of particles in a fixed volume that are able to
react in a reaction, then the probability of molecular collisions
occurring will increase. As a result, any increase in concentration
should also increase the rate of reaction. However the collisions that
actually occur have to be effective collisions. One must realise that
not every collision leads to a reaction. As a rule of thumb, if I
double the concentration I will double the rate of reaction.

...

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