2045 words - 8 pages

the factors which affect the time for one full oscillation of a pendulumAn investigation on the factors affecting the period of one complete oscillation of a simple pendulumIn this investigation I aim to discover and investigate the factors which affect the time for one complete oscillation of a simple pendulum. It is important to understand what a pendulum is. A simple pendulum is a weight or mass suspended from a fixed point and allowed to swing freely. An oscillation is one cycle of the pendulums motion e.g. From position a to b and back to a. The period of oscillation is the time required for the pendulum to complete one cycle of its motion. This is determined by measuring the time required for the pendulum to reoccupy a given position.I am going to do a simple preliminary experiment to investigate which of the factors I test have an effect on the time for one complete oscillation. The factors basic variable factors I can test are:? Length (the distance between the point of suspension and the mass)? Mass (the weight in g of the item suspended from the fixed point)? Angle (the angle between the point of equilibrium and the maximum point the pendulum reaches)*The point of equilibrium is the point at which kinetic energy (KE) is the only force making the mass move and not gravitational potential energy (GPE).I will test the extremes of these factors as I can assume that if they have any effect on the period of oscillation it will become obvious. To make sure my results are reliable and to allow for any anomalies I will repeat the experiment 4 times for each extreme. I will also keep all the other factors constant so if the results change for the different extremes I can be sure which factor is causing this change, as all the others will remain constant. To keep the results as accurate as possible I will measure the period of 10 oscillations and only use one decimal place to allow for my reaction time.ResultsAngle (º) Time Taken (sec) for 10 oscillations90º 13*4 13*4 13*8 13*7 Average:13*645º 13*2 13*2 13*1 12*9 13*1Length: 0*3m, Mass: 20gMass (g) Time Taken (sec) for 10 oscillations400g 11*1 11*3 11*3 11*4 Average:11*3100g 11*6 11*1 11*0 11*2 11*2Length: 0*2cm, Angle: 45ºLength (cm) Time Taken (sec) for 10 oscillations0*25m 10*4 10*5 10*5 10*3 Average:10*40*65m 16*8 16*0 16*5 15*9 Average:16*3Mass: 50g, Angle: 40ºI can see from the results that there is one clear factor, length. For Angle and mass the period for 10 oscillations is roughly the same for both of the extremes. The variation between the averages is small enough for me to conclude that these factors have a minimal effect if any on the period of an oscillation. From the information from this preliminary experiment I can now go onto investigate how precisely length effects the oscillation period of a pendulum. I have also learnt from this preliminary it is necessary for the clamp stand to be held firmly in place so it does not rock.Scientific TheoryAs a pendulum...

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