Many people would consider Pope Urban II at Clermont, France in November 1095 to have been the spark that fueled the military battles to regain control of the Holy Land. The Pope gave a speech after a mass. In the speech, he encouraged Western Europe and the Franks to go east and help their Christian brothers attack the Muslim Turks, and take over Jerusalem once again. Jerusalem is the most sacred land and the beloved city where Christ lived most of his life in, but has been controlled by the Muslims since A.D. 638 when they took control. However the response to the Pope’s speech may have even startled the Pope himself, according to (catholiceducation).
After the Pope gave his speech, he surprised himself with the terrific response he got. Huge amounts of Christens From Western Europe responded to the Pope’s speech and were very enthused and excited about it too. The Crusaders regained control of Jerusalem for the first time in almost five hundred years in July of 1099. Then the Christens set up several Latin states as the Muslims vowed to wage holy war, to eventually regain control over the region. The relations were diminishing between the Crusaders and their Christen allies in the Byzantine Empire, because of the sack of Constantinople in 1204 during the third Crusade. Almost one century after the Crusaders got control of the Holy Land the rising Mamluk Dynasty in Egypt had the final blow on the Crusaders, destroying the stronghold of the coast in Acre and pushing the European invaders out of Palestine and Syria in 1291. However, the Crusaders made a peace treaty that guaranteed them the Kingdom of Jerusalem was theirs, and this was how the end of the third Crusade happened.
However, the Crusader just had to have more than just Jerusalem, and Pope Innocent III called for another Crusade in 1198. Once again to conquer the reigning Byzantine Empire. When in 1204 the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople in response to the Byzantine Empire. Settling the fourth Crusade with the conquest and looting of the terrific Byzantine Empire later on that year. The rest of the thirteenth century was full of Crusades aiming toward the enemies in the eyes of the Christen faith.
Therefore, the Pope decided he needed another Crusade put in motion that so happened before his death in 1216, when the fifth crusade happened. Where the Crusaders attacked Egypt from both land and sea, but sadly failed and forced to surrender to Saladin’s nephew, Al-Malik al-Kamil, the leader of the Muslims in 1221. Later in 1229 was the sixth Crusade; Emperor Frederick II accomplished the
peaceful, treaty for Jerusalem to be the Crusaders through negotiation with al-Kamil. But sadly the peace treaty failed a decade later, and the Muslims got control of Jerusalem with no problem at all.
At the end of the thirteenth century, the Crusaders made many attempts to conquer the Holy Lands once again. Thibault IV of Champagne, leader of the seventh crusade, that...