The Following Is My Summary Of The Ten Early Perspectives Of Psychology.

1130 words - 5 pages

In psychology there are ten early perspectives. These perspectives are structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, evolutionary, cognitive, and cultural and diversity. The different perspectives in early psychology have had a tremendous influence on modern psychology, and the way it has progressed. Each perspective has its own unique way of explaining the human behavior. The following is my summary of the ten early perspectives of psychology.Structuralism, as defined by our textbook, is "the earliest approach in modern psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt; its goal was to evaluate the basic elements of a cognizant experience." Davis and Palladino (Page 25 Para. 1) . Wilhelm's student, whose name was Edward Tichener, brought Wundt's ideas of structuralism and psychology to the United States. "Tichener's research depended upon a method called introspection, in which participants gave verbal reports of their conscious experiences." Davis and Palladino (Page 25 Para. 2 ) This method was soon replaced by other approaches only to be later rediscovered and investigated.Functionalism is one of the major proposals that have been offered as solutions to the mind/body problem. This approach was developed in the United States around the 1800s. "It was an approach to psychology that focused on the purpose of consciousness." Davis and Palladino ( Page 25 Para. 5) Basically they wanted to see how people use certain information to adapt to their environment. Functionalism and functionalist reached their peak around 1906.Max Wertheimer soon introduced a new approach. Gestalt psychology was "an approach to psychology most noted for emphasizing that our perception of a whole is different from our perception of the individual stimuli." Davis and Palladino (Page 26 Para. 1 )This approach to psychology was introduced in Germany around 1912 and was founded on the principals known as "apparent motion, in which a rapid sequence of stationary images creates the illusion of movement, as in a movie" Davis and Palladino (Page 26 Para 1). Examples of the Gestalt experience include the perception of an incomplete circle as a whole or a pattern of dots as a shape; the mind completes the missing pieces through extrapolation. We can see the shape as a whole.John B. Watson was an American psychologist who introduced the school of behaviorism. The behavioral perspective "focuses on the observable behavior and emphasis the learned nature of behavior." Davis and Palladino (Page 26 Para. 2) John B. Watson was inspired by a Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, who learned through dogs that organisms associate events to their environments. Unlike the other approaches, the behavioral perspective accentuates how it is important to learn and understand and doesn't focus on consciousness. B. F. Skinner, "the greatest contemporary psychologist", agreed with Pavlov and Watson. Skinner had a simple approach: "Behavior changes as a...

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