Hodge and Anthony, define culture as the set of important understandings (often unstated) that members of a community share in common.
Is the conduct of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. Culture includes the organization values, visions, norms, working language, system, symbols, beliefs and habits (Schein,1992).
Organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors such as history, product, market, technology, and strategy, kind of employees, management style, and national cultures and so on(Needle, 2004.P. 75).
1.2. THE FORMATION OF CULTURE ...view middle of the document...
-The second step of group formation is what Schein terms “confrontation of intimacy, role differentiation and peer relationship issues”. Successful first efforts to deal with the authority issue are likely to produce the feeling of success and good feelings about membership that are likely to occupy the group’s attention for the rest of its existence.
-Confronting the creativity issue is the third step. Here the group begins to cope with the innovative approaches that brought its initial success as they come in conflict with the need of order and a stable, predictable way of behaving. The creativity that formed the initial impetus to formation can now threaten to disrupt its order.
-Throughout these steps, the group tries to solve problems of leadership, role, and other issues that affect its style and survival. The underlying question throughout all these steps is whether the group can forge the kind of culture needed for survival.
• Scholz typology of Culture Formation
-Christian Scholz has argued that, because of the complexity of organisational culture, one can best use the typology that synthesized from previous research in the field in order to understand better how culture is formed. Specifically, Scholz states that culture is formed along an evolutionary dimension. These three dimensions thus, constitute his typology.
-Scholz’s Evolution-Induced Culture somewhat resembles the process described by Schein. That is, an organisation’s culture evolves over time and can best be understood as a series of sequential steps. Unlike Schein, however, Scholz’s steps presume that a nascent culture is already in place and that the culture evolves in steps as the members of the group, or organisation , are presented with a challenge either to discontinue the present culture or to alteration it in some way. Scholz describes the five evolutionary steps that an organisational culture can experience (1) the stable step, during which no discontinuity or alteration is contemplated; (2) the reactive step, during which minimal alterations are accepted ; (3) the anticipation step, during which incremental alterations are accepted; (4) the exploring step, during which a great deal of alteration is accepted; (5) the creative step, during which the organisation’s culture has reached a level at which there is a continuous search for alteration. Scholz argues that not all organisations follow this sequence nor is any one step better than another.
- The second dimension is the Internally Induced Culture, whereby an organisation’s culture is formed as a result of particular internal conditions operating within the organisation. Thus, according to Scholz, an organisation that uses a very standardised production processes would originate a culture that is very constant and process-orientated. On the other hand, in a professional bureaucracy organisation, where individuals possess varied skills and professional expertise, a very individualistic and heterogeneous...