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The Free Will Essay

1328 words - 6 pages

If the above mentioned cognitive skills are impaired, it is assumed that the person is unable to express her free will. This condition is called mental or neurodegenerative disorder. Many disabilities are caused by apoplexy, organic (Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome) or traumatic damages or by lesions of the cerebral cortex of different localization. But most often they arise from the frontal lobe pathology, acompanied by changes in behavior. Patients boil down to apathy, loss of initiative, interest in their surroundings, have no criticism of their own actions: they tend to flat and rude jokes and euphoria. In 1923 two patients, who received the First World War wounds in the ...view middle of the document...

This speech disorder can take many forms. Global aphasia is characterised by the violations of all the language function due to the left hemisphere injuries. Wernicke aphasia is characterised by normal sounds and correct grammar, but patients use a lot of non-existent words, rhythm of speech, reading and writing are violated, they are not able to build a meaningful sentence due to the injuries of the upper part of the left temporal lobe, localised 1874 by Wernicke. Conduction aphasia is characterised by understanding of written language, normal writing and the oral fluent, but partly meaningless speech and disability to repeat phrases correctly due to injuries of the Wernicke's area or the temporal gyrus. Dysphrasia or speech process disorders is based on the impaired memory or attention. Cognitive dysphrasia is caused by injuries of for attention, memory and executive functions responsible regions, eg. the for awareness responsible reticular formation in the brainstem, the emotional evaluation and recognition of situations performing amygdala, the thalamus, the frontal lobe, which perform long-term memory, in the for the concentration responsible left hemisphere and in the right hemisphere, which is responsible for alertness and episodic memory). Semantic agraphia is characterised by disability to speak and write meaningful sentences due to injuries of subcortical area, semantic region of Wernicke's area or the gyrus angularis. Impairments in in temporal lobes, hippocampus and diencephalon cause quantitative memory disorders, eg. anterograde or retrograde amnesia, which are independent from each other. Long-term semantic memory disability can occure vor previous (retrograde amnesia) or new events (anterograde amnesia). The anterograde amnesia often occurs in combination with the retrograde amnesia. Sometimes only non-declarative memory suffers, but not the semantic memory. Amnesia can last from several minutes to several years. Forgotten period of duration is not always correspond to the severity of the injury, which caused of amnesia. Amnesia related disorders are Dementia, accompanied by cognitive disabilities, Delirium, associated with disorders of consciousness, Paremnesia= Illusions of memory=impaired memory traces, Pseudoreminniscence or memory Hallutinations, when time of events that according to facts took place in the past is shifed into the presence, Ekmnesia or disorder of the experience of time, feeling of being transported back to an earlier period of life, the past is experienced as present, confubulations or false memories, caused by a distorted memory or malfunction in the retrieval of memory contents. Amnesie is the most prominent symptotom of Morbus Alzheimer, when misfolded beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles build of hyperphosphorilated tau proteins which are not able to return to the cell body of the axons achieve high concentration in the brain. Decretion of acetylcholin concentration due todecrease of...

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