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The French Revolution And The Industrial Revolution

1365 words - 5 pages

The period of 18th and 19th century is marked by the greatest transformations, reformations, revolutions and many other critical events that ever took place in human history. The credit is given to all these revolutions for enlightenment of mankind. The two most important revolutions were the French revolution and the industrial revolution. One can feel that both of these revolutions mutually reinforced each other and later became the back bone of all other revolutions. On the other hand, both revolutions had totally different impacts and consequences at various economical, political and social realms.
The development of the industrialisation is outcome of the advancement of agriculture. Agriculture has played very important role in the development of human civilisation. Nearly 90 percent of the population lived in rural area during the 18th century. These rural families produced most of the food, clothing and other useful commodities. Talking about the advancement of agriculture, no other name comes to mind except of England. It is to be noted that farmers in England were among the most productive farmers of the world. The new methods of farming brought mass production in early 18th century leading to the Agricultural revolution. “In the early eighteenth century, Britain exported wheat, rising from 49,000 quarters in 1700 to a massive peak of 950,000 quarters in 1750” .The whole benefit of the Agricultural revolution was shared among aristocratic landholders. They were the only top authorities, as English throne was already overthrown by aristocratic class in 1688 during the Glorious Revolution. Landholders started enclosure movement to end the traditional rights of land and to gain full control over the benefits from agriculture. The enclosure movement brought drastic change in the economic and social life of people. The better and organised utilisation of land increased the production of grain. The high production lowered the cost of the food and raised the standard of life. On the other hand, small farmer and peasant class was unemployed as they lost their land to rich landholders. There was increase in the labour force. It seems that socially and economically England possessed everything needed to fuel the industrial revolution.
Also, the cottage industry of England was not able to fulfill the demands of increasing population. The ratio of demand to supply increased tremendously as population doubled in less than half century. Therefore, people began to focus on the ways to improve the cottage industry. In 1765 cotton spinning jenny was invented by a carpenter named James Hargreaves. At the same time, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1768. These two inventions triggered the production of the cottage industry and cotton became cheaper and affordable to all classes. The real breakthrough comes when James watt invented steam engine in 1776 which made possible the establishment of coal and iron factories to more suitable...

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