Pharmacokinetic has evolved over the years from being a graphic science to a systematic and is frequently used in the current clinical studies. Scientists are progressively being conscious and willing to collect relevant pharmacokinetic data by using the in vitro studies. In vitro studies will allow the safer and more predictable studies compared and results compare to in vivo studies. Interpretation of toxic side effects of all the medications can be studied via pharmacokinetics in vitro analysis.
Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug, as opposed to pharmacodynamics which describes what the drug does to the body. Pharmacokinetic information is required to utilize and increase the drug response. The primary pharmacokinetic disposition parameter is clearance. This is really important to have knowledge of this value and its major parts. For example the fractional renal and hepatic elimination and clearance will allow the clinician to prescribe the correct dosage regimen. The accurate dosage regimen could help the clinicians to obtain an average therapeutic concentration and to predict the effects of various disease states. The other pharmacokinetic disposition parameter which can be utilized in vitro is the volume of distribution. The volume of distribution can be measured at steady-state; this may also vary with changes in physiologic and pathologic conditions of the body2. Clearance and volume of distribution would be expected to vary with changes in plasma protein binding. The usage of in vitro setting could help us to measure these modifiable elements. Although plasma concentration measurements are usually easiest to perform via in vitro settings, clarification of parameters in original organism or the human body terms requires blood cell cultures, so the relevant plasma concentration of the drug partition parameter should be determined1. This major pharmacokinetic input parameter is determinant of the extent of availability as the other parameters being ignored on these in vitro settings.
The in vitro setting can help us to manipulate the half-life which is one of the most important pharmacokinetics factors. Half-life is a amalgamated parameter reflecting fluctuations in both clearance and volume of distribution. The value of half-life is in direct correlation with the renal and hepatic clearance. So using the in vitro setting can help us to define the maximum and minimum blood concentrations obtained for a particular dosage regimen2. These important pharmacokinetic parameters could also the magnitudes in describing the pharmacodynamics response in body.
What are the in vitro approaches in predicting the real life parameters and why are we using this method? In vitro studies are those that are accompanied by using different parts of an organism that have been isolated or grown in the laboratory settings. This method of study will help us to find the specific analysis than can be done with whole organisms