The Fundamental Causes of the Russian Revolution
The fundamental causes of the Russian Revolution were the direct consequence of a dreadfully long period of suppression of the Russian people combined with a prolonged instability of the Russian government. For centuries, czarist regimes forced their strict demands upon the populace by exerting their unilateral power, with no moral consideration for human life or freedom. At the same time, to maintain its status as a great power, the Tsar promoted higher education. The result was perpetual tension between government and society, especially its educated element, known as "intelligentsia."
The United States emerged as the leader in automated technology in the late 1800's and human rights quickly became a concern in places of employment. This gave stimulation to industrial development in Russia. 1890 was the beginning of the great leap forward in Russian industrialization. Huge factories were constructed, implementing the most modern technologies available, which were imported from England, Germany and the USA. Along with the most up to date technology brought in from the West, came the most current and advanced ideas of socialism. As a result, big industrial towns sprang up rapidly. Peasants were now required to be relocated from their work place in the fields in order to now be employed in these giant factories, thus the Proletarian class emerged and became an important social class in Russian society. By 1914, their number reached approximately 225 million and by 1917, Russia had over 3 million workers. There was an elite group of educated Russians that attempted to adopt the Western ideals of human rights and to apply them to the Russian work force. This sparked the leaders within the peasant class to make demands asking for more rights and freedoms, which brought about fear of revolution and dissension. The working conditions for the factory workforce was unsafe because there were no safety regulations. The hours were very long and the living quarters were overcrowded and deplorable with no sanitary facilities. Democratic Socialism was now favored by the majority of the people who wanted control over their own production in the factories.
The concept of Marxism was recognized by the Russians as early as 1980. The first Marxist group was formed by Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov, known as the "Father of Russian Marxism" in 1883. In the late 1800s, one of Plekhanov's most passionate supporters was Vladimir Lenin. Lenin admired Plekhanov as the founder of Russian Marxism and strove to master the revolutionary activity and party building Plekhanov had begun. In 1900, when Lenin founded Iskra, Plekhanov wrote for the paper, and jointly, they supported proletarian revolution backed by Marxist theory. Lenin formed another Marxist party, known as the Russian Social Democratic Party. In August 1903, the Social Democratic Party held a party in congress in London. This...