A person suffer from diabetes mellitus has high blood sugar if left untreated. Explain diabetes, blindness and kidney failure
Definition and diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus.
Nowadays many people, especially in the developed nations though not solely, suffer from diabetes. American Diabetes Association (2014) had studied that diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders and which reveal themselves by causing problems in insulin action/-secretion or both and results in dysfunction and eventually failure of many organs. The general symptoms of this disease are increased thirst and polyuria,which means that within 24 hours there is a urine production of at least 3+ liters, as well as glycosuria,which is the presence of glucose in urine. Many patients also lose a lot of weight or suffer from blurry vision. If untreated, the worst cases of diabetes mellitus can cause ketoacidosis, in which the body produces acidic ketones from fatty acids due to a lack of insulin (usually in diabetes mellitus type 1). In type 2, a hyperosmolar and hyperglycemic state can result from high blood sugar, which dehydrates the body and increases cell osmolarity. Both complications may lead to death. In the long term, people suffering from diabetes are prone to sexual dysfunction, blindness, renal (kidney-) failure and foot ulcers or even amputation (due to diabetic neuropathy- damaged nerves). Cardio-, cerebro- and peripheral vascular complications also occur in higher number in these patients.
There are three commonly used tests for diabetes mellitus. For diabetes mellitus type 2 the best method to diagnose is the hemoglobin A1c test, which shows the average glucose levels over the course of three months. Should the result be higher than 6,5% then the patient is medically diabetic. The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test or FPG can be used for both diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. It is convenient and cheap. Therefore, it’s the most used diabetes test. In this test, the patient has to fast at least eight hours and then the blood glucose levels are taken. If the level is 126 mg/dL or higher that indicates the person has diabetes. At last, there is the Oralc Glucose Tolerance Test or OGTT. First, the patient also need to fast for eight hours, then drink a solution containing 75 grams of glucose and wait two more hours. If the test gives a level of 200 mg/dL or above this person is diabetic. All of the tests should at least be conducted twice if not thrice to make sure there is no mistake (American Diabetes Association, 2014).
For patients who shows symptoms and higher blood sugar levels, yet still under the critical values for a full diabetes mellitus there are two more categories: The ones that are just under the critical values are said to have Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and those who are just over the normal blood sugar levels have an Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG) (American Diabetes Association, 2014).
Classification of diabetes...