The Geological Formation Of Natural Diamonds

1113 words - 5 pages

Diamonds are a source of attraction every human over thousands of years as a diamond has its own unique, shining and beautiful. Moreover, diamonds also conducts heat better than any other mineral. But where and how did the diamond formed? On this occasion, we will discuss the history or origin of the formation of diamonds on earth. However, nowadays people know that the diamond originated from the minerals in the world but they do not know which minerals can form a diamond.
Diamond is the hardest natural substance and the most valued gemstone. Besides, together with a sparkling luster and high excellence, diamond occupies the top position compared to other gemstones. Diamond is a mineral ...view middle of the document...

This is why many diamond mines are near volcanoes. On the other hand, diamonds usually occur in rocks derived from the earth’s mantle that is igneous rocks such as kimberlites or metamorphic rocks of mantle origin (Koeberl, 1995). In contrast, Meyer (1985) has argued that diamonds are accidental inclusions in kimberlite and thus are xenocrysts.
Additionally, the main sources of diamonds are kimberlite and lamproite. In spite of the fact that, most diamonds came from alluvial deposits until the discovery in the mid-nineteenth century in South Africa (Oldershaw, 2005). Kimberlite is forms in tube-shaped or bowl-shaped features in Earth’s crust (Fuerst, 2005). This igneous rock is rich in magnesium, iron, and calcium. Furthermore, it is mostly dark in colour.
As mentioned by Tappert and Tappert (2011, p. 5 – 7), in addition to kimberlites, several other types of volcanic rocks are known to host mantle-derived diamonds, including lamproites, lamprophyres and even some komatiites. Hence, only lamproites occasionally contain diamonds in economic quantities, for example at the Argyle and Ellendale mines in Western Australia. Besides that, a huge amount of research by both mineralogists and physicists has been carried out on diamonds, inclusions in diamond, and on mantle xenoliths formed in the diamond stability field in the lower continental mantle lithosphere (Harte, 2010).
Despite the fact that diamonds also can be found to form from other resources. Diamond can be form from the outside of the Earth’s mantle such as metamorphic and other crustal diamonds. Further to this, diamond also found in meteorite. According to Tappert and Tappert (2011, p.12), diamonds have been identified in metamorphic rocks from localities in central Asia and the diamonds in these areas occur in crustal rocks, such as gneisses and crustal eclogites. Moreover, it is believed that these diamonds formed as a result of continental plate collision that caused the rocks to undergo short-lived and high-pressure metamorphism.
A further example for meteorite can be seen in Koeberl’s (1995) work, where the diamonds originated at high gravitational pressure within meteorite parent bodies, as for kimberlitic diamonds on Earth. The shock waves from a large meteorite impact can cause the pressures at an impact site to be temporarily high enough to allow diamonds to crystallize. On the contrary, the diamonds that formed through meteorite impacts are generally small....

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