The Gold Standard To Reduce Scar Formation

2257 words - 9 pages

Since the early 1980s, antimitotics like 5-FU and MMC have been increasingly used as an adjunctive to trabeculectomy, and have become the gold standard to reduce scar formation. However, the nonspecific mechanism of action of these agents can result in severe side-effects 1. Therefore, there is still a need for alternative strategies to prevent filtration failure. We already showed that pharmacological enhancement of trabeculectomy using VEGF inhibitors was able to significantly improve rates of surgical success. A single injection of bevacizumab at the time of trabeculectomy improved the surgical outcome by reducing post-operative angiogenesis during the initial phase, and collagen deposition at later stages in a rabbit model of trabeculectomy 3. These results were recently confirmed in a prospective, randomized, double masked, placebo-controlled trial performed by our group in the University Hospitals of Leuven. We showed that a single intracameral injection of bevacizumab at the end of trabeculectomy significantly reduces the need for additional interventions during the first year of follow-up after trabeculectomy 5. Although the results from this clinical trial are highly relevant and very promising, some questions remain unanswered. It is unclear whether the intracameral administration route is the optimal one. Furthermore, the study was not designed to answer the question whether bevacizumab could replace MMC in clinical practice or should rather be used as an adjunctive to MMC.
Since the most optimal route of administration of bevacizumab after GFS is still unclear, different administration routes were first compared. Our data showed that the three routes of VEGF-antibody injection were able to equally improve surgical outcome. Bevacizumab was detected at relatively high levels in plasma shortly after IV injection, whereas the other administration routes only induced a minimal bevacizumab absorption from day 4. The levels after SC and IC injection can be considered as negligible, since they are comparable to the minimal effective inhibitory concentration of bevacizumab. It is indeed described that bevacizumab loses its VEGF-inhibiting properties at a concentration of 1 µg/ml 14. These data suggest that the SC and IC administration routes induce less systemic absorption of the VEGF inhibitor as compared to IV injection. Uptake of bevacizumab in the blood after IV injection has already been described in the literature 15-19 and our results are in line with those of Kim et al, who reported that plasma levels of the VEGF-antibody after IV administration can represent up to 30% of the injected dose in rodents 20. Heiduschka et al. described that the systemic absorption of bevacizumab after IV injection could be explained by penetration of the VEGF-antibody from the vitreous into the inner retina, photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, presumably regulated by active transport of the Müller cells. Upon arrival in the choroidal blood...

Find Another Essay On The Gold Standard to Reduce Scar Formation

Foreign Exchange Markets Summary You have been asked by a local college to write a lecture that explains the gold standard and addresses the functions of the world's major foreign exchange markets

1332 words - 5 pages gold standard was more appealing than standards that were previously used. Some advocates argue the return of the gold standard could reduce the rate of inflation. In the current paper money system, the government can control the monetary supply. As more money is printed, the rate of inflation is increased. The excellence of the gold standard is to be seen in the fact that it renders the determination of the monetary unit's purchasing power

Alternative Treatment at Menopause to Reduce the Risk of Osteoporosis

2431 words - 10 pages , occur typically in the hip, spine, and wrist.In the past, it was routine to prescribe hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to reduce the effects of osteoporosis in menopausal woman. But lately, the use of HRT has become the center of controversy, and many studies condone the use of HRT for this purpose. Many studies state that HRT is unsafe and should not be the first choice drug in prevention of osteoporosis.My thesis is that HRT is dangerous to

How to Reduce the Rate of Domestic Violence

2320 words - 9 pages damaging as physical abuse. Verbal abuse is words that attack or injure an individual’s self-image, which eventually shatters one’s self-esteem. In this paper, I will discuss the many kinds of abuses against women, the reasons why women stay in these relationships, and possible solutions to diminish or reduce the problems of domestic violence. There are many forms of domestic violence but the more prevalent types that I will discuss are

The Power of Music to Reduce Stress by Jane Collingwood

1647 words - 7 pages feeling. Listening to music makes humans feel emotion and that is what we thrive on. Music has the tendency to impact an individuals mood and behavior. People can benefit by acknowledging how music makes them feel and using it to their advantage. When feeling stressed people can use music as a means of escape. Music helps distract people from pain and elevates mood (Jabr). In Jane Collingwood’s article The Power of Music to Reduce Stress it

Strategic Plan to Reduce the Number of Fires in Lancashire

2481 words - 10 pages Initiation stageFires in LancashireLancashire Fire and Rescue Service designed a good Strategic Plan; the aim of the plan was to reduce the number of fires which take place in Lancashire. Among the performance indicators which was utilized to help in reducing the amount of deaths caused by accidental fire of the people of Lancashire. The management prepared a report based on the death due to fire in Lancashire in from the year February 2008

Participating in Sports Helps to Reduce the Levels of Depression

1256 words - 5 pages people to a very low minimum. Purpose of the Study The purpose of my study to find out if participating in sports helps to reduce the levels of depression in college students. I am hoping to find out if there is a relationship between playing a sport and controlled levels of depression in college students, so that depression can be controlled and monitored in a different way. This will lead up to the need for physical activity needed throughout

How To Reduce The Cost Of College Education

735 words - 3 pages is to go to a community college. Students can take general education courses for a fraction of the cost than a university. Likewise, students from low-income families can benefit from the reduced costs. They can now save money to reduce the total cost of their planned four year education. In addition, four-year universities give priority to students transferring from community colleges. This means that students are now able to attend the college

How Are We To Assess Gender In Relation To The Formation Of Identity?

1580 words - 6 pages masculine woman who society, while maybe not agreeing with her principles, did not see her gender as a reason to keep her out of a very male dominated world. Identity, I believe, is the way that not only we see ourselves but ultimately the way others and society at large see us too. The formation of gender in our early years, the years between say birth and 16, will govern the way our identity is shaped. Our identity includes such diverse

The role of the nurse in helping to reduce and prevent levels of alcohol misuse

737 words - 3 pages There are many available topics of discussion in relation to the issues raised in Target 8 of Health 21. This section of the essay will concentrate on the role of the nurse in helping to reduce and prevent levels of alcohol misuse (a topic raised in Target 8). The chosen client group are women in the middle adulthood.Alcohol is a factor in many of the priority health issues that health visitors (including nurses) need to address, including

Summarize the formation of friction ridge skin and how it relates to the permanence of fingerprints?

888 words - 4 pages 1.Summarize the formation of friction ridge skin and how it relates to the permanence of fingerprints.The skin over most of our bodies is fairly smooth. 'Friction Ridges', however, are found on the digits, palms and soles. They are called 'friction' ridges because of their biological function that helps us grasp and hold onto objects. Sometimes compared to fine lines found in corduroy, unlike corduroy, ridges vary in length and width, branch off

Can Marinating Chicken Prior to Grilling Reduce the Amount of Carcinogens?

2118 words - 9 pages My project is: Can marinating chicken prior to grilling reduce the amount of carcinogens? Carcinogens are basically substances that are capable of causing cancer. Two examples of carcinogens are heterocyclic amines (HCA’s) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s). Heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are simply chemicals formed when meat is cooked at very high temperatures. I think that if I marinate the chicken breast

Similar Essays

The Euro And The Gold Standard Compared

2884 words - 12 pages Introduction This paper will analyse the monetary contradistinctions of the fixed exchange rate regimes of the classical gold standard (1870s - 1914) and the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. In relation to each other country within the currency union, the EMU is to a degree homologous to the classical gold standard. I see not the similarity in the nature of the unit of account (as the euro is fiat, as opposed to gold), but in

Flaxseed To Reduce Plasma Cholesterol And The Formation Of Atherosclerotic Lesion In Menopausal Women Or Those Deficient In Ovarian Hormones

1685 words - 7 pages Regarding the study “Flaxseed reduces plasma cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesion formation in ovariectomized Golden Syrian hamsters”, the research question for Lucas et al. (2004) study is: Can flaxseed reduce plasma cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerotic lesion in women who are deficient in ovarian hormones or menopausal women? According to the study, in menopausal women, the deficiency of ovarian hormones will increase the level

Working To Help Reduce The Numbers

1162 words - 5 pages Sabina 1 Working to Help Reduce the Numbers Not many people can resist a puppy or kitten, how cute and cuddley they are. Everytime I see one I just want to take it home with me. I have 3 cats, all rescues, 2 from adoption event sponsored by PetSmart and the othe was only with

Unleashing The Cops To Reduce Crime Rates

1142 words - 5 pages patrol assigned to areas had either little or no effect on crime or the fear of crime. Although they did not come to the conclusion that police patrol had no effect at all on criminal activities, they did note that adding more police patrols did not reduce criminal activity, so in the ended up keeping the normal level of patrols they had before the experiment began. When law-abiding citizens or potential criminal saw a police car, they assumed that