What exactly is curriculum? There are so many definitions, perceptions, beliefs, and historical explanations on curriculum, but how did it start? where did it come from? This paper will provide information on an array of intellectual knowledge concerning the history of curriculum, such as, what curriculum is and how it started, a few of the important education philosophers who had a great effect on the development of curriculum, the relationship history of culture and curriculum, and curriculum auditing.
The definition and research of curriculum have been interpreted differently. According to John Kerr (1983), curriculum is, ‘All the learning whish is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school (curriculum theory and practice, 2000)’. Curriculum was first discovered in Greece. It was also, originally used as a course, or in other words, a racing chariot and in Latin, it meant ‘currere’, to run, ( curriculum theory and practice, 2000).
‘Authentic education must go beyond the uplift of children to promote an understanding of the world’(Kridel, 1918). Although there were many philosophers and educational leaders who had an important impact on the growth and development of curriculum, sadly, there was time when curriculum was not doing so well. One of those scholars was a man by the name of George S. Counts. Counts, was a student who graduated from the University of Chicago and, eventually, became a professor at Columbia University (Watkins, 1918). Concerning education and curriculum, he was very expressive in his thoughts, and described many strict points on the poorness of the school system at the time (Watkins, 1918). Extremely interested in impacting education and curriculum, in 1932, Counts, expressed his opinion through the printing of his book, “Dare the school Build a New social order?” Watkins, states this concerning Counts opinion on the school system, “…he examined the failure of (high) schools to reduce economic inequality, substantiate corporate control of educational policy, spotlighted the resistance to elite influence in school governance in Chicago, and commented on the role of school in culture making” (1918). Counts, (1918) wanted deeply, for curriculum to be effective and exciting when explaining the problems of the world. Counts spoke up against the way the school system was handling the issues of education. At this time, education and the curriculum for school was not doing well, but because of this passionate philosopher, damages in the school were addressed and the curriculum began to change.
John Franklin Bobbitt, was also another education scholar who greatly effected the growth of curriculum. Bobbitt, finished his PhD at Clark University, in the year of 1909, and after receiving his PhD, he was hired at the University of Chicago, to work (Null, 1918). ‘The Curriculum’, written by Bobbitt in 1918, was the initially the primary book on...