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The Historical Development Of Psychology Essay

1080 words - 4 pages

The Historical Development of Psychology
I am going to be looking at the history of psychology, and by using a
few examples try to explain some of the theories that leading
psychologists and scientist have concluded in their experiments and
scientific studies. Psychology is in fact the study of the mind, how
it works and what effect it has upon an individuals thoughts and
general functions, the processes of the mind will never be fully
understood but there has been a great breakthrough over many years,
although the mind has many parts in which we will never truly
understand.

The first example I am going to look at is behaviourism,
Wittgenstein(1889-1951) believes what is in the mind as “over and
above behaviour” He believes that if everyone were to have a box which
held a beetle and only they were allowed to look in their own box,
people will talk about their boxes and perceive them to stand for a
beetle as that is how they associate their boxes, he believes the
boxes are like the mind, everyone has one, they are alike but no one
actually knows what either persons looks like as you cannot compare
them just like the mind no one knows what exactly is in them.

The most famous experiment looking into behaviourism is by the Russian
scientist I.P Pavlov (1849-1946) in which he found that by ringing a
bell every time he fed the dogs in his lab, he realised that the dogs
learned to associate the bell with food so therefore salivated,
eventually the dogs would salivate without the need for food as the
simple ringing of the bell was enough for them to assume that the bell
meant food therefore salivation would occur. Not only does this form
of behaviourism work with animals it has the same effect on humans,
therefore it proves that a behaviour can be learned without an action
being taken if you already associate that behaviour with something
that you unconsciously learned before.

There is also psychoanalytic perspective in which Freuds(1856-1938)
theory on the unconscious mind is a typical example, he believes that
you must reach three elements, which are ID, EGO, and Superego which
briefly explained are, ID stage, he believes this is our unconscious
impulse to seek instant gratification, in a way our selfishness and
need for attention from others, this is also known as the Pleasure
Principle, there is then the Ego Freud’s reality principle, which is
the mediator between the Id and reality what we want and what we have,
then the Super ego which suppresses the Id and the Ego, its known as
the Guilt principle which is part of our mind that makes us feel
guilty for selfish acts. Freud concludes it as the conflict theory:
ID= I...

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