The History Of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, And Jordan. This Is A Small Paper, My History Instructor Asked Me To Prepare.

1550 words - 6 pages

Egypt, Saudi-Arabia, and JordanI. EgyptEgyptian HistoryEgypt recorded history, the longest continuous account in the world, dates from 3200 BC.From then until 333BC, Egypt was a united kingdom under various dynasties of pharaohs.After 333BC, the country's territory alternatively increased and decreased according to the conquest of foreign occupiers.France's domination of the country from 1798 to 1801 ushered in the modern period of Egypt, which emerged from a long, dark age. Bonaparte's army included scientists, medical doctors and teachers.A French officer unearthed the famed Rosetta Stone, and Jean Francois Champollion, the 1st Egyptologist, decoded its hieroglyphics, providing the key to Egypt's ancient glories, about which Egyptians for many centuries have known very little.Thus many Egyptians look upon the French emperor as the father of modern Egypt.Political disorganization after the French withdrew in 1801 gave rise in 1805 to the reign of Mohammad Ali, founder of the last Egyptian dynasty.A key ingredient of that effort was the building of the Suez Canal.After 10 years of construction, the canal was opened on November 17, 1989, creating the short route between Europe and the Italian Ocean and the Western Pacific.Great Britain became the chief guardian of the canal.The ruling dynasty was interrupted in 1882 by British occupation of Egypt. In 1914 the occupation status was changed and Egypt became a British protectorate.In 1992, Egypt was returned to a kingdom under King Fouad and later, King Farouk.Egypt was among the founding members of the United Nations and became a member of the Arab league in 1945.Egypt was among the Arab states that rejected the UN decision in 1947 that led to the partition of Palestine, the State of Israel, and, in May 1848, the first Arab-Israeli war.The peace agreement of 1949 gave administration of the Gaza Strip to Egypt.Republic ProclaimedOn July 23, 1952, a military junta (rule) seized the government. The "Free Officers" led by Colonel Jamal Abdel Nasser forced the abdication of Farouk.On June 18, 1953, the monarchy was abolished and Egypt was proclaimed a republic.The new government President was General Mohammad Naguib, a war hero from the 1848-49 war against Israel.Nasser became the prime minister in April 1954. Disagreement among the ruling group of military officers eventually brought about the ouster of Naguib, and Nasser assumed the presidency in November 1854.In June 1956, Egypt held its 1st popular presidential elections and Nasser retained office with 99% of the vote.Strong Egyptian nationalist feelings also led to Egyptian pressure on Britain to evacuate the Suez Canal.On July 27, 1954, Britain agreed to withdraw all its troops within 20 months. Its 74-year of occupation ended in June 13, 1956.On July 26, 1956, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal which was owned largely by British and French interests.Egyptian relations with Britain and France rapidly deteriorated while, on another front, tension...

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