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The History Of Hominid Evolution Essay

1126 words - 5 pages

What evidence shows the changing from the early hominids to the modern humans? Throughout the human evolution body parts like legs and harms have changed for the better. By the early hominids being biped, meaning they are able to stand and even walk on two feet, it helped them to be able to do more things like getting around more and help with their tool making and hunting. A lot of the fossils discovered were found in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa, which contained many different lakes and small rivers. For many years researchers have been finding new species. These species have been named Australopithicus, robust australopithecines , Orrorin tugenensis, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, neanderthal, and Homo sapiens. These early hominids and modern humans really show off how the features and behaviors have really changed in time.
Austalopithicus meaning “southern ape” was the first specimen to be found. The Austalopithicus was found in African and was know to have lived from 4.2 to around 1.0 million years ago (Standford 251). They had a small body like an ape that would get approximately 64 to around 100 pounds. They had a big jaw with a U-shaped mouth of small teeth. The brain size of a Australopithicus was small and would get approximately 340 to 500 cc, which is in the same range as gorillas and chimpanzees brain sizes. The top of their skull was of a bony ridge. They were able to walk on their two feet and had a small pelvis. The Australopithecus were found with stone tools, which made them the first stone tool makers.
Orrorin tugenensis is known to be the second oldest hominin ancestor annd possibly related to modern humans. It was also known as the “Millennium Man” because the Orrorin tugenensis was found in 2000. The first fossils found of the Orrorin tugenensis was in Tugen Hills of Kenya and was dated to have lived from about 5.8 to 6.1 million years ago (Stanford 249). The Orrorin tugenensis was found with thigh bones. And the Orrorin tugenensis had small teeth like the Australopithicus.
The robust australopithecines or paranthropines had a curved face with a arch for the cheek bones that are formed by connecting the zygomatic and the temporal bones together. The robust australopithecines had a bone ridge on top of their skull called a sagittal crest, which is also attached to the jaw muscles. They had a flexable base just above were their jaw bone connected to their cheek bone. With their really large back teeth (below the cheek bone) the robust australopithecines fossils were known to the researchers as the “nutcracker man”. They used these really large back teeth to eat tough foods and nuts. And their teeth in the front were smaller.
The Homo habilis was known as “the skilled human or handy man” (Standford 273). They got this name because they made tools. Homo habilis have a brain size of aproxamiltly 509 cc to aproximitly 775 cc. They also have a encephalization quotient (EQ) of about 2.73 to...

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