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The History Of Invasive And Interventional Cardiology

2241 words - 9 pages

America has come a long way since improvements in medical technology and treatment have been made. As time has progressed, modern medicine has continued to shape America and its medical practices, moving it towards becoming a much more medically advanced nation. Ranging from the birth of catheterization to the interventional era of development of surgeries, drugs, imaging, and care, the history of invasive and interventional cardiology is a field of modern medicine that has stepped up to another level, transformed the way medicine is utilized, and ultimately, changed the way America has saved lives.
Invasive and interventional cardiology is the study of a group of methods in which diagnostic ...view middle of the document...

Bernard applied scientific methods to study cardiac physiology using the cardiac catheter while also performing cannualation (the process of inserting a tube in the body for the delivery or removal of fluid for the purposes of collecting date) on an equine artery to measure systemic arterial pressure. Meanwhile, a young surgeon, Werner Forssmann, performed the first catheterization on a human being—surprisingly, himself. Forssmann’s goal was to prove that these catheters could safely enter the heart, inject drugs, and contrast material into the right atrium of the heart. He was able to prove this when he showed his insertion on an x-ray. Soon enough, other physicians began to share the same ideas that Forssmann held (Choudhury, Rahman, Azam, and Hashem 75). In 1711, Stephen Hales placed catheters into the left and right ventricles of animals by inserting a brass pipe into a horse and a glass tube into the trachea of a goose (MacGregor 1). In 1941, in hopes of carrying on the catheter legacy, Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards used the catheter as a diagnostic tool for the first time and performed systematic measurements of hemodynamics of the heart. Over the years of catheterization techniques and practices, the epoch for angiography began. Angiography first developed in 1972 by Portuguese physician Egas Moniz; at this time, Charles Dotter was also starting to work on visualizing the heart as well (Choudhury, Rahman, Azam, and Hashem 75).
The goal of Werner Forssman’s self-cardiac catherization was to safely inject drugs for cardiac resuscitation and many followed his model and ideas to map out the entire circulatory system. With these ideas, the goal for safer cardiac catheterization and disease investigation had started to mold its way through. Though many people of that time saw Forssmann’s procedure as fatal and scoffed and mocked him for his claims and research, all seemed to prove helpful in the future advancements to come. In 1947, the first studies on congenital and pulmonary heart disease were reported by Dexter in which passage to the distal pulmonary artery was successful. As cardiac catheterization had begun to get used in investigating problems in cardiovascular physiology, McMicheal and Sharpey-Shafer started to do the same in England and over time trans-septal catheterization, developed by Ross and Cope (study of the left heart using a method known as “transatrial” where the left atrial pressure in patients with mitral valve disease is measured), quickly became accepted as a standard technique 1959. It was in the early 1960’s that this technique became further refined and the “trans-septal” technique was proposed (Ponti, Storti, Longobardi, and Uriarte 943)
As systemic pressure measurement started to become widely investigated through use of catheters, blood pressure measurement started to evolve as well. The first methods of catheterization developed into double catheterization techniques which made way for blood pressure...

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