The History Of Iran, Turkey, And Iraq. This Essay Represents The Notes Of A History Course About The Countries Of The Middle East.

1930 words - 8 pages

Iran, Turkey, and IraqI. IranIran or PersiaIran is the ancient name for the country and its people. Persia is an ancient province in which Iranian people were 1st known to have lived. In 1935, the Iranian government asked all foreign government to use the name Iran rather than Persia.The Shah's LegacyIn January 1963, the Shah announced the "white revolution", an ambitious plan to give social growth equal priority with production. The plan promoted women's suffrage, literacy and health, nationalization of natural resources, sale of state-owned factories and profit-sharing for workers.The Iranian RevolutionThe revolution that ended the Shah 37-years reign did not spring up full blown in a year with a wave of Khomeini's hand.The social, economic, and religious pressures had been building up for several decades, and Khomeini became both the symbol of the revolution and its leader.In the traditional absence of formal political institutions entrusted with the advancement of the national interest, Iran's shahs often had been the sole embodiment of central authority and the principal architects of national policy.Mass demonstrationsSerious mass demonstrations in 1976 protesting the shah's change from the Islamic calendar to one based on the coronation of Cyrus the Great threatened the future of Iran.The shah was directly responsible for the army's rising pay and stature. Although the shah enjoys their loyalty, there was always some fear that one day, a military elite would rise against its creator.The shah also felt secure in the belief that he had neutralized the opposition of the religious hierarchy through the modernization process. The shah had denied the religious community any effective political power and had imprisoned some religious leaders. One of the most vociferous, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, had after all been in exile in Iraq since 1963.Religious opposition to the shah's rapid move toward modernization provided the initial impetus for anti-shah demonstrations, and Khomeini had served as a national symbol behind which Iranians could rally.Students joined in the demonstrations which occurred with increasing frequency and intensity, with Khomeini taking an active part in encouraging the demonstrations from his exile in Iraq.The Iraqi government, concerned with maintaining good relations with Iran, meanwhile told Khomeini to leave the country.On October 6, 1978 he moved to a locale near Paris and set up his headquarters, attracting even more world-wide attention than he had enjoyed in Iraq.Khomeini ReturnsWith the extent of the anti-shah movement now apparent, the shah made several last minutes efforts at appeasement, trying to modify the protestors.The shah then offered to step down as head of the government, but not as the shah.He appointed Shahpur Bakhtiar, a national front member that has always opposed the shah, as prime minister.Bakhtiar was denounced by his own party for accepting the premiership from the shah, whom the party declared...

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