1) Muhammad- Muhammad was a caravan trader until age forty when he had a great religious experience. He believed that he had seen the angel Gabriel and had been commanded to teach the word of Allah. After meeting persecution at Mecca, he gained many followers in Yathrib. Eventually, he and his followers invaded Mecca and destroyed the pagan idols in the temple in Mecca called Ka'bah. This became the holiest shrine and led to the conversion of many Arabian tribes.
2) Qur’an- The Qur’an is the holy book of Islam. It contains parts of the Christian Bible and the Jewish Torah. The Qur’an was originally written in Arabic and is still memorized today in Arabic. The Qur’an is believed to be a ...view middle of the document...
They came from a North African tribe called the Berbers who led a conquest in Spain. They tried to conquer part of the Frankish Empire but were defeated by the Franks near a town called Tours in 723. The Moors soon retreated and ruled many parts of modern-day Spain for more than 700 years.
6) Sunnis- The Sunnis are a division of Islam. They accepted Mu'awiya's rule in 661 and remain followers of the Sunni or the way. They believe that a consensus of an Islamic community helps to establish religious and civil authority and peace. Ninety percent of Muslims today are Sunnis.
7) Shi’ah- The Shi'ah are another division of Islam. The Shi'ah follow Ali and believe that only Ali's descendants can rule or interpret the Qur'an. The descendants of Ali are called Imams. The Shi'ah believe that the imams are the sole spiritual and secular authority. About ten percent of Muslims are Shi'ah.
8) Arab contributions to Medicine- The Arabs experimented with Medicine and Chemistry They developed the process of distillation, sublimation, and purification of substances. An Arab by the name of Ibn-Sina wrote a book on medicine called the Canon of Medicine, which was used in medical schools for centuries. Another Arab, Abu al-Qasim, developed surgical techniques. These advances allowed patients to be more successfully treated.
9) Arab contributions to Mathematics & Geography- The Arabs transmitted a number system which included zero, to the West. The word Algebra is also from an Arabic word AL-jabr which means restoring. Arabs combined traveler's observations, astronomy, and mathematical calculations to study geography. They improved map making and believe that each hemisphere of the world had a center.
10) Ottomans- The Ottomans were a group of Turks that began in the 1300s. They invaded Europe and established a capital at Adrianople. In 1453 Mehmet II also known as “the Conqueror” captured Constantinople. From there, the...