The History of Spain
Spain's history can be traced back as far as 3000BC, where Paleolithic cave paintings were found in the region of the Bay of Biscay and the western Pyrenees. These paintings exhibited a remarkable degree of animation and skill. About 1000BC the southern region became the first invasion point for the Iberians, Iberians were originally North African people who became the most prominent ethnologic element in the peninsula and gave its name. The Celts, who migrated from France, also invaded the peninsula and completely absorbed the central region and the northern mountains. Together these two groups form the Celtiberians. Around the 11th century BC the first Mediterranean seafaring people called the Phoenicians colonized in what now is Cadiz. Somewhat later traders from Rhodes and the Greek cities followed. They established colonies also along the Mediterranean coast. In the later part of the 3rd century BC the African State of Carthage, began to exploit the Peninsula. Under the Carthaginian General Hamilcar, a large part of peninsula was conquered in a campaign in from 237BC to 228 BC. That part of the peninsula is now known as Barcelona. This expansion was viewed unfavorable by the Romans and in 219 BC, after violating a Carthage-Rome agreement limiting Carthaginian territory, General Hannibal; destroyed the Greek colony of Saguntum, and started the second Punic war. Around 206 BC the Carthage was forced to evacuate the Peninsula, and nine years later Rome divided the peninsula into two provinces. The Hispanic Citerior, in the valley of the Ebro River and the Hispanic Ulterior, in the plain penetrated by the Guadalquivir River. Under the Romans, Hispania took its final form as three provinces: Lusitania, approximating modern Portugal; Baetica, in the south, approximating western Andalusia; and Hispania Tarraconensis, the central plateau and the north, northwest, and the eastern coast above Cartgena.
In 409AD, Teutonic Invaders crossed the Pyrenees, Alans, Vandals, and Suevi swept over the peninsula. The unity of Hispania under Rome was destroyed, and was not to be recreated for another thousand years. In 412 AD the Visigoth brought their armies in and became the dominant power. From 417 to 717, The King of Toulouse implanted Roman Culture and Christianity in the peninsula. Euric ruled at the height of Visigothic power in the 5 century and codified the Roman and Gothic Law. During the years of 586 to 601 the Roman Catholic religion became the official state religion.
In 711 Muslim armies invaded the Iberian Peninsula, under the leadership of Tariq-lbn-Ziyad. In two years they succeeded in capturing most of Spain. After 717 the country was ran by emirs, and the last of the Spanish emir of Abd-ar-Rahman. In 756, Abd-ar-Rahamn founded the powerful and independent emirate, which later developed into the caliphates of Cordoba. During the establishment of the moors power, a small portion of Christianity...