The History Of The Beothucks Of Newfoundland And Labrador

2498 words - 10 pages

Historical Background The Beothuk people lived on the island of Newfoundland. They lived there for around 900 years. There are three main ideas as to how they arrived in the region. They could have walked across the Bering Strait from Labrador as the ice retreated. It is also possible that they canoed across the Cabot Strait from Nova Scotia. Another, newer possibility is that they descended from the Maritime Archaic Indians who lived in the area over 1000 years ago. The Beothuk population in Newfoundland numbered in the thousands at its peak, with 60 to 80 in each tribe. When John Cabot arrived in 1497, there was only as estimated 500 Beothuks remaining. In 1822, when Shawnawdithit was captured, there was only 10-15 Beothuks remaining.One of the unique Beothuk archaeological sites in Newfoundland is at Boyd's Cove. There were at least 11 houses, 9 circular and 2 oval in shape. Excavation of four of these houses revealed a strange variety of artefacts. There were iron nails that they converted into arrow and spearheads. There were also stone scrapers and arrowheads. This tells us that the Beothuks, at least at this site, were in transition between the stone and iron ages. Archaeologists also discovered a large amount of bone pendants. It was originally believed that the pendants we only used in burial ceremonies but the number of pendants at the Boyd's Cove site suggests that they had other purposes. Also discovered at this site were pieces of Normandy Stoneware, pipe stem fragments and glass trade beads.The trade beads raise many interesting questions. The other European articles found on this site, the iron nails, the stoneware, and the pipe stems could have been acquired by the Beothuks stealing from the Europeans. The trade beads, however, could only have been acquired from peaceful contact wit Europeans. It is also possible the Beothuks received these beads through trade with other native groups such as the Mi'kmaq who were friendly with the Europeans. However, the Beothuks were not friendly with the Mi'kmaq people. They were, however, friendly with the Montognais of southern Labrador, so it is possible that the Beothuks received the beads from them.The Beothuks went through two major migrations a year. They spent the summers on the coast where fish were plentiful. They also hunted seals and other sea mammals. They also hunted seabirds and took the eggs. In the fall they migrated inland where they spent the winter. In the late fall, the Beothuks hunted caribou. This caribou meat was they're main food during to cold winter. They also hunted small game such as fox and beaver. When the snow and ice melted in the spring, the Beothuks traveled back out to the coast.CultureArtistic worksThe Beothuks craved small pendants of bone or antler that they decorated with designs such as triangle, diamonds and zigzags. The bone or antler was polished and the designs were filled with red ochre. This made the designs show up well on the light...

Find Another Essay On The history of the Beothucks of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Identity and History of the Caribbean

2174 words - 9 pages The Identity and History of the Caribbean The Caribbean is a vastly diverse area representing the effects of colonialism, slavery, and the combination of many cultures. Since the arrival of Europeans the Caribbean islands have been going through constant change. The loss of native peoples and the introduction of the plantation system had immediate and permanent reprocussions on the islands. The Plantation system set up a society which

History of the Company and the Union

2063 words - 8 pages History of the Company and the Union The National Football League has a very long history. It all began when representatives of more than 20 NFL clubs met at a hotel in Cleveland, Ohio in 1922 to address a full agenda. During this meeting the owner’s officially changed the league’s name from the American Professional Football Association to the National Football League. In 1956, long before the league became the massively profitable

A essay on the novel Death on the Ice by Cassie Brown. Called Adversity on the Human Spirit, about the struggle that the crew of the Newfoundland seal ship had to endure during their tragedy.

926 words - 4 pages Since the beginning of time the individual has been in a conflict. In the novel Death on The Ice by Cassie Brown we are shown how the crew of the Newfoundland survived in great hardship. The examples I will be showing you are of Jesse Collins with his struggle against the failing hope of the men, Cecil Mouland and his determination to live, and also Captain Abe Keans pride against the morals of Saint Johns. Every human being going those

The History of Photography and the Camera

1057 words - 4 pages experimented with color photography. The first color photo, which was an image of a ribbon, was taken in 1861 by James Maxwell. Throughout the 19th century many different types of color printing methods were developed that required less chemicals and took less time. Now that I’ve covered some of the topics of the beginning and early innovations of the history of Photography I’d like to skip ahead and talk about the Polaroid Camera. The Polaroid

The History and theories of the evolutionist.

1374 words - 5 pages (Strayer 1995:49-50)Darwin thus began an evolutionary tradition that provided for the idea that history was the record of entities which either progressed or died. Thus history consisted of the biological and social evolution of species or societies toward more highly evolved beings. In this notion of progress entities moved from simple to more complex and from less evolved to more highly evolved forms (McGee & Warms 2000:6).This basic premise

The History and Future of the Olympics

1926 words - 8 pages The History and Future of the Olympics It is the year 2004, and everyone who is anyone in the world of athletics is headed to Athens, Greece. To some people Athens is just an ancient city where the myths of Hercules and Zeus were originated, but this year, it's not just an ancient city, it's a reunion of where sports began. Even thought they won't be played in the nude it will still be considered a reunion. That's right; the Olympics are

The History of Magnets and Electromagents

3182 words - 13 pages The History of Magnets and Electromagents Magnets and electromagnets have many uses, every electric motor, generator or transformer requires a magnetic field for it's operation. With the exception of a few special types, all use electromagnets. The magnets mounted on large cranes are used to lift heavy loads. Magnetism makes the

The History and the Symbolism of the Festival of Pesach

2108 words - 8 pages The History and the Symbolism of the Festival of Pesach Around 3000 years ago, the Israelites who lived in Egypt were blamed for all of the troubles of the country. They were enslaved by the Pharaoh and forced to labour constantly under the whip to build palaces and buildings for him. This continued for years until one day, when King Herod threw all the Israelite babies into the river, for fear of being

The Meaning and Implication of Oral History

3290 words - 13 pages The Meaning and Implication of Oral History In the United States the institutional beginnings of oral history can be traced back to Allan Nevins’s Oral History Project at Columbia University in 1948. As a field it developed in the early 1980s and at this time advocates started to seriously reflect on its methods and implications. Today oral history and public history are considered the growth engine of the historical discipline, absorbing

The Relationship of Photographs, History, and Memory

5350 words - 21 pages The Relationship of Photographs, History, and Memory Abstract: This essay reflects on the relationship of photographs, history, and memory based on a found and mutilated photo album. Photographs provide opportunities for disrupting and restructuring history with their attraction to memory; they privilege the subjective, creative power of the personal explanation and provide an emotional and even ideological grounding for memory

The History and Development of English

1422 words - 6 pages Words” 2014). This lingual promiscuity has led to the English language’s somewhat brutal nickname, “the bastard tongue” (Nordquist, n.d.). In this essay we’ll be discussing the history of English, following its origins in Germanic languages, influence from Latin and other European languages, and the standardization that occurred in Early Modern English. The origins of English have been traced back with relative certainty to the 5th and 6th

Similar Essays

Tsunami Of Newfoundland Essay

710 words - 3 pages Last year, our school participated in a fund-raising event to help the survivors of the Indian Ocean Tsunami. This terrible event killed more than 270,000 people making it the most destructive tsunami in all of history. I was very happy to help out in this event and told my grand-parents what our school had done to help out. Having thought that things like this happen in other places in the world, I was so surprised to hear that Newfoundland had

"The Black Labrador Retriever" By Josh Abney

628 words - 3 pages To understand the origin of the Black Labrador Retriever, it almost requires a study of the history of Newfoundland. Whalers and fisherman knew this so called "Newfoundland" as early as the fifteen century. The Labrador retriever originated on the cold reaches of newfound. This small water dog worked for the fisherman. The fishing boats could not come close to shore and it was the dog's task to swim in the icy water, dragging the full fishnets

Newfoundland Telephone Company Ltd. & The Message Relay Service

742 words - 3 pages NewTel was regulated by the Newfoundland Public Utilities Commissions (NPUC), and since by the CRTC. Due to revenue shortfalls Newtel put in an application to increase rates. This was the first application since 1982 and the first to the CRTC.With a solid history and foundation, and having established a monopoly, NewTel realized newfound strengths. With no competition they gained total market share. A strong management and executive team back their

The History And Future Of The Internet

825 words - 3 pages The History and Future of the Internet Many believe the internet was an over night sensation, that one day, someone invented the internet and it spread in popularity faster than Tickle Me Elmo or the Macarena. Although the internet did have a surge of commercial popularity, with the invention of Mosaic and later with e-commerce, it was created many years ago with the development of military networking technologies. Also, the internet, unlike