The Human Genome Project (HGP), an international scientific research project, has educated the public tremendously on various topics concerning DNA and genetics. This study has been beneficial to communities alike. As stated, the HGP sought to identify all the genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project. In favor of achieving these goals, scientists studied the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms (Human Genome Management Information System, 2011).
The HGP exclusively provided information about the effects of DNA variations among individuals that can lead to revolutionary new ways to diagnose and treat the many disorders that affect the population. Scientists hope to someday find ways to prevent the thousands of disorders that affect the human population through the genomic research. (Human Genome Management Information System, 2011).
Genomic researchers have found out that each individual's genetic code differs slightly. Reportedly, any two human individuals are approximately 99.9% the same genetically; it is hypothesized that the most important genetic material for human functioning is encompassed in that shared set. The 0.1% difference represents about three million differences between individuals' DNA. Suggestively, most of those differences probably have no effect on phenotype, an observable trait (Feldman, 2011), and a small fraction of these differences are responsible for the genetic component of the differences in health, behavior, and other human traits (Cargill et al., 1999). These findings, generously provided by genomic research, have indisputably enhanced our understanding of both physical and psychological health and well-being.
Due to scientist’s interest in human genetic variation, human racial classification became a focus of scientific investigation by evolutionary biologists attempting to categorize individual humans based on presumed patterns of biological difference. Scientists had hoped to classify humans in the same way that they classified other species. These scientists attached hierarchical titles to these categorizations; they claimed that differences in skin color, physiognomy, and geography were associated with scientifically measurable differences in character, aptitude, and temperament (Smedley, 1998). However, studies supporting these claims have been unsound (Gould, 1981). Categorization of humans by racial and ethnic groups continues, as researchers must remain aware of this historical legacy of the science of heredity as the genomic era continues to develop (Bonham et al., 2005).
Although the HGP has been informative to the public, especially when it comes to racial variations in disorders and genetic reflected illnesses, there are...