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The Human Genome Project Essay

962 words - 4 pages

The Human genome project :In 1990, the project initially headed by James Watson began at the U.S National Institutes of health.A genome is the entire DNA in a living animal such as cats, human and ants… including its genes.DNA is the long thread of a molecule that carries genes. Each strand of DNA, packaged as a chromosome, bears thousands of genes. Each gene contains the instructions for making a single component of the body, usually a protein. The hereditary instructions embedded in DNA are written with a four-letter alphabet (A, G, C, and T). A single misspelling in the DNA code can lead to the production of a defective protein, which can cause disease (KARIN JEGALIAN)It is one of the most ambitious quests that the science ever had. These researches bring the hope of a new age in medicine, with enormous benefits for the public.It involves the identification of all the 25,000 genes (ornl) in the human DNA, to understand how we are made better.To determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs (ornl) that makes up human DNA,Store this information in databases; to share this information with the world’s scientists, is also a part of the project, to allow them to develop therapeutics new methods, resulting in better treatments with fewer side effects.Leading more accuracy for the diagnosis and precise classification of severity disease,Improve tools for data analysis (ornl),Transfer related technologies to the private sector (ornl), and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. This program focused efforts on four areas: Privacy and fair use of genetic information, clinical integration of genetic in the technology, issues surrounding ethic’s problems, and education.Genetic engineering is a technique used by scientists to change the DNA of some living organisms. (What is Genetic Engineering?) Biologists have discovered many enzymes, which can change the DNA structure. Some of them can cut and join strands of DNA. By using it, scientists learned to how to specific genes from DNA and to build customized DNA using these genes.This project has shown that humans share more than 99 % of genes and the nearly 1% makes a serious difference. This means that the human really are one race with some difference, it can prove that racisms in reality is notThe good points of the human genome project:It will improve a lot in the filled of medical. For example, the cloning of organs instead of the actual transplants of heart and lawn. The rejection of the graft will not be as frequent, so the medical services may be safer than ever.The gene therapy can also improve the filled of medical because it may correct defective genes responsible for disease. There is several approaches to correct the bad genes that researchers may like: a normal gene should be inserted into the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene. Or, The bad gene could be repaired through selective controlled mutation, which returns...

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