The Hundred Years War
The Hundred Years’ War was a war between England and France in which France
defended its’ crown against British rule. This war had a great impact on the people of each country.
The origin of the war goes back to the conquest of William for England. In 1066
William, the Duke of Normandy, led an army into England. He won this battle and
became the king of England. This was possible under feudalism. Feudalism is a form of
social classification in which the members of an upper class are granted fifes, or pieces
of land, by higher ranking noblemen return for their military service. The vassal, the
person receiving the land, had to go through ceremony in which they would say that they
would be faithful to their overlord and fight for them if needed. In return the overlord
would protect the vassal (Lace 12).
Many years later Isabella, the wife of King Edward II of England, plotted to kill
Edward II making her son Edward III king (Lace 12). Because Edward III was very
young she would be able to rule the country through him. Edward II sent his son and
Isabella to pay homage to Charles IV in 1325 for French land that Edward II owned.
Isabella took her lover, Roger de Mortimer, with them and while there they began to
make their plans. After homage is paid to Charles IV the three went to Hainault. While
there Isabella and Mortimer convinced the Count of Hainault, William, to help them
overthrow the king. In 1327, with the help of William’s troops, Isabella and Mortimer
successfully overthrew Edward II and made Edward III king. During their overthrow,
King Charles IV of France, Isabella’s brother, died. When he died he had no children to
leave the throne to, but his wife Jeanne was pregnant. When she gave birth though she
had a stillborn daughter. This enabled Charles’ cousin, Philip of Valois, king. Some of
the people objected. Some thought that since Isabella was his sister she was closer to the throne than Philip and that she should be queen. Others thought that since Edward was
his nephew he should be king, but the majority of the French were against Edward
becoming their king (14). Philip was favored for many reasons: He was older: Philip was
35 and Edward was 15, Edward was under the control of his mother and Mortimer;
Edward was a well known warrior, and Edward was considered a foreigner (14). Edward
then decided that he was tired of being controlled. On October 19, 1330, Edward
gathered a small army together and burst into Isabella and Mortimer’s bedroom. He
seized Mortimer and hung him the next morning. He left Mortimer’s body hanging for 2
days and nights. Isabella was treated more carefully. She was imprisoned and confined to
several castles for life (16). In 1337 Edward III would return to France to claim what he felt what was rightfully his. (Time Life 17).
On October 19, 1337, Edward III drafted a document to Philip of Valois that said
that Edward was...