The Concept Of Encounter Of Cultures In The Philosophy Of History

4660 words - 19 pages

The Concept of Encounter of Cultures in the Philosophy of History

ABSTRACT: A general problem of philosophical interests concerns the possibility of objective knowledge of other cultures and a past culture, as well as the adequacy of their reconstruction. The problem of cultural development is also crucial. By the criterion I develop, a culture which has expanded its potentialities in various independent forms is an open culture able to enter into dialogue with any other culture.

1. To begin with, I must mention that at first I intended to present my paper at the Section of Philosophy of History, because the point at issue here has a great concern to the concept of history and to the methodological approaches of historians. Something must be changed in the attitude of historians and brought in accordance with cultural studies and ideas of the philosophy of culture, I think. A kind of etatism is prevailing in the minds of historians when they perceive the history of mankind as a succession of Principalities, States and Empires, Universal States and Great Powers and leave out of vision the historical mosaic of cultures which really comes down from remote past and which is the real essence, value and the very vocation, if you please, of the existence of a human, and of peoples. A people becomes conscious of its Self through its culture, and the historical lifetime of a people is measured by the duration of its culture.

2. The problem of encounter of cultures has a number of particular aspects belonging to universal history, ethnology, archaeology, social and ethnical psychology, sociology, law, etc. But a general - though abstract - idea of this crucial phenomenon of human society and history one can get viewing it from the point of philosophy of history.

The term "encounter of cultures" is intended to cover the whole gamut and all the varieties of this phenomenon: the contacts of cultures in space and time; their interactions; their dialogue, conflict, collision; the inheritance relations between them; the survival, historically, of a culture or of its definite layer in other culture, etc.

The phenomenon of encounter of cultures has been known and described long ago, but in its definite meaning the theoretical analysis of the phenomenon may be dated by the late 19th and early 20th cc., the period of shaping of contemporary anthropology and philosophy of history. In this connection, in the field of the philosophy of history the work of Arnold Toynbee ought to be mentioned who has put forward a conception and a model for systematic representation of the whole diversity of historical facts concerning the encounter of societies, civilizations, cultures in space and time, (1) and, in the field of ethnology, the work of the American cultural anthropologists, of Franz Boas' school, in which theory and practice of intercultural and cross-cultural research have been initiated in different forms. (2)

3. In such a broad meaning of the...

Find Another Essay On The Concept of Encounter of Cultures in the Philosophy of History

Concept of the Automobile Essay

646 words - 3 pages The invention of the automobile has been one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century. To mankind, it has been a definitive icon of independence and personal freedom. But with the birth of the automobile now comes the beginning of the concept vehicle.The invention started with the Tin Lizzies in the 1900's. Vehicles in the early days were produced to look the same. These vehicles looked like a box on wheels, similar to a horseless

The concept of reflexivity Essay

2375 words - 10 pages shows us that in reflection there is no exchange of thoughts or in other words thoughts are only traveling one way. On the contrary, in reflexivity thoughts are traveling back and forth, there is an exchange of thoughts with someone else or as Qualley explains there is an encounter with "new information or perspectives" (Qualley, 12). The final detail, which is also important to the understanding of the concept, is that "Reflecting does not require

The Concept of Marriage

1041 words - 4 pages Marriage is the bonding between people by social union or legal contract. Marriage is when two people have a wedding ceremony to exchange vows before God and their family. People spend hundreds to thousands of dollars on wedding ceremonies for something they have no clue of what they are getting into. Different cultures have their own concept of marriage. I am going to explore the biblical and social concept of marriage. People enter into

The Concept of Intelligence

3430 words - 14 pages from the function of the adverb ‘intelligently,’ the concept of intelligence does not have essential reference to specific verbs but rather to the manner or style of proceeding of nearly any verb that is descriptive of the proceedings of an agent. Intelligence- words are expressive of a manner of doing things that may be narrated in one of two ways. The first takes the form of a series of contrasts which, when put together as a list of disjuncts

The concept of Prejudice

811 words - 3 pages Prejudice can be defined in one of several ways. There is an intellectual as well as a behavioral aspect to the concept of prejudice. Prejudice encompasses negative thoughts and feelings that a person has toward another person. Thoughts and feelings linked to prejudice are generally not based upon the experience the individual, but rather the prevailing thoughts and attitudes of the society within which the individual has been socialized. These

The Concept of Psychology

767 words - 4 pages people are changing than so is psychology. In early psychology, the study was once thought of as structuralism. Structuralism in psychology refers to a theory of consciousness. So structuralism in psychology did not cover the state of mind while sleeping or being unconscious. After structuralism ended, along came functionalism. According to Wikipedia, functionalism in psychology refers to a general psychological philosophy that considers mental life

The concept of mimesis

1432 words - 6 pages The idea of mimesis is that a certain medium is a representation of reality. The concept of mimesis extends to art, media, and other texts. Mimesis also creates a sense of false reality, as often the art appears and is can be taken as real as the real world. In Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, the concept of mimesis is explained and through analysis of the novel and several other pieces of work can the implications and effects of mimesis be grasped

The Concept of Delinquency

724 words - 3 pages , and peer relations” (Siegel & Welsh, 2012). How did the concept of concern for children develop? The treatment of children was not always what it is today, history shows that today’s treatment of children has only been around for the past 350 years or so. In the Middle Ages, paternalistic family practices were very popular. This paternalistic family style consisted of the father being the final authority of all family matters and he exercises

The Concept of Power

1627 words - 7 pages Power was always perceived as a gauge by nations’ military might and ability to impose its will on others; however since taking this course, the perception has changed. There are multiple definitions of power. Power can be used to influence other nations to meet the host nation’s intent. Power can be interpreted through economic influence or old fashion brute force among many things. In essence, power is the means in which influence is

The Concept of Legality

1034 words - 4 pages into your values. There are new rules and laws written every day. There are also old rules and laws that are still active in nature from many years ago. On the other hand, there are rules and laws that are no longer followed as they were at one time; in an opposing manner, there are new ideals that will potentially birth the new set of rules and laws for which we as a people live and operate tomorrow on a day to day basis. This ever-evolving

Cultures of the New World

2166 words - 9 pages -Hill Companies.Le, C. N. (2007). In The First Asian Americans. (sect. Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America.). Retrieved May 27, 2007, from, J. C. (2006). In Maize and Grace. (sect. Africa’s Encounter with a New World Crop, 1500-2000). Retrieved May 27, 2007, from, K. (1989). In The Potomac Appalachian Trail Club. (chap. A Brief History of Virginia Indians). Retrieved May 27, 2007, from

Similar Essays

Exploring The Concept Of “Self” In Modern Philosophy

1302 words - 5 pages noteworthy that sense of self-identity, way in which one characterizes his/her essential self, is far more complex than it seems. There are many different aspects of person that enter into one’s concept of self such as passion, memory, desire, thinking etc. Human beings are free willing substance in otherwise mechanistic world. Throughout history, philosophers have struggled with the nature of human beings, especially with the concept of “self”. What

The Concept Of Gender In The Study Of Ancient History

4609 words - 18 pages The Concept of Gender in the Study of Ancient History In antiquity gender was a defining feature of life, we can note that it affected the way society was structured, specifically in the Athenian 'polis', as well as public events, such as those associated with religious cults. Gender was also influential in politics, especially that of the Romans. Moreover, it is through gender that we can observe the general ancient

Secrets: The Story Of A Lesbian Encounter.

934 words - 4 pages Did you see those tears rolling down her pale cheeks? Those eyes filled with anger and torment? She was just standing over the lifeless body with a 9mm gun in her shaking hands. Her laughter echoed around the silent room. It was not a laughter filled with supremacy or happiness, but of uncertainty. But why? Why did she laugh that night?***It's that feeling that you want to go away, but sticks and sticks like glue on paper. You try to pull it off

History And Importance Of The Potato Among Many Cultures

2703 words - 11 pages connects many diverse nations in a mutual need. Though per capita, Europe and North America remain the highest consumers of potatoes, the others are rising each year and who knows what the future may hold for this nutritious and now quite valuable tuber (Potato2008). Throughout history, this nutritious ugly tuber has had a rough run. Often it was at first mistrusted or dismissed by new cultures, but all most always its indispensable qualities