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The Ideological Revolution Of The Late 1800's

733 words - 3 pages

In the late 1800’s, before World War 1, European countries saw a dramatic change within their societies. New and more liberal ideas began to emerge, and challenged the traditional European beliefs. Ordinary, average people started to ponder on new practices that would forever change society. Ideologies such as Marxism, Freudianism, and women’s movement not only revolutionized the face of Europe, but also shaped the continent’s government and society.

Marxism was a theory from Karl Marx that spread a thought for communist regime. He brought out the idea of a struggle in the working class called “the bourgeoisie-proletariat struggle” that disclosed the working class overthrowing the middle-class (Bourgeoisie) Marx believed that this conflict was not a product of bad intentions but rather this revolution was unavoidable due to the harsh treatment the middle class was giving to the working class. The thought was the working class would takeover the revenues of production, set up a dictatorship and eventually turn this into a classless communist society because Karl blamed this problem on capitalism. This was a criticism and a blow to European economy because it challenged the traditional beliefs and targeted the point that the economy was not benefitting the people. Karl Marx challenged the middle class with its value system also saying that the working class would ultimately be in power. Marxism not only questions traditional social hierarchy by saying that the working class would rule, but he also questions democracy, absolutism and monarchism with the knowledge of Marx saying that those “governments” would be rendered useless, and no longer a need for government in his mind.

Freudianism was an attack on rationalism theorized by Sigmund Freud. He studied the human subconscious mind and developed a new model that modernized the understanding of human nature. Freudianism separates struggle and conflict amid three entities: ID, Superego, and the ego. ID is the irrational driving instincts for sexual gratification and sensual pleasure, the superego exemplifies the expectation enforced on the personality by society and the ego is what meditates the impulses of the ID and the severity of the superego. This theory challenged traditional European beliefs about rationalism and human nature itself. Humans were seen as...

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