With the previous budgets taken into consideration, it could be noted that every year, there is an increase in budget. In the graph above, it is clear that the budget for 2013 is greatly increased to prepare for the K-12 implementation but a 22.6 percent increase will not be enough to cover all the current shortages in teachers, rooms and textbooks and the necessary additions and resources needed for the program. According to data from UNESCO and The World Bank, the Philippines has the lowest education spending in proportion to the total budget in East Asia, as percent of GDP, and per student. Furthermore, the country’s spending level is below the East Asian regional average of 3.6% of GDP and South Asia’s average of 3.8%. This means that even if there is an increase in the budget for the education sector, it is still insufficient, especially now that the K-12 program, a major change in the education system, is implemented.
There is little efficiency attained in today’s public basic education, with efficiency being defined as “the extent to which the goals of primary and secondary education are attained with the given resources.” (Manalang 22). According to Salinlahi Alliance for Children’s Concerns on an article by Anne Marxze Umali, there should be one chair per pupil, one comfort room per classroom since some of the children are not yet toilet trained and one teacher for a maximum of 25 pupils. “These are the prerequisites of a Kindergarten program. But since there is no budget for this program, this is not happening in many elementary schools in the country obviously because, first and foremost, the DepEd did not really prepare for this program,”(Melissa San Miguel, spokeswoman of Salinlahi).
According to data from the Department of Education, there is an average of 65 students per teacher, 3 students per book, and 63 students per classroom. There is a 152,569 shortage in classrooms and a shortage of 103,599 teachers. The number of pupils assigned to a teacher is believed to affect a teacher’s effectiveness. (Manalang, 20). Because of these shortages, students resort to sharing old, often damaged books and being cramped in small classrooms while some have no seats because of lack of chairs. Not only is this environment not conducive to learning, the perennial shortages also hinders the quality of education from improving and because of these obstacles, efficiency is not attained. The Alliance of Concerned Teachers called the implementation of universal kindergarten a “disaster” because in schools such as the Corazon Aquino Elementary School in Batasan, Quezon City, the five-year old pupils lacked chairs to sit on and were cramped in the classrooms made available.” To address the shortage of classrooms, pupils were put in whatever space was available in elementary schools.
Shortage in textbooks
Part of the problem with textbooks is that the prescribed texts are oftentimes not available in the market and so make it difficult for students...