The Impact Of Contracted British Braille Code On The Spelling Proficiency Among Pupils With Visual Impairments In Bilingual Setting

2110 words - 9 pages

Introduction
Chronologically, before systematic production of the Basic Module for the Visually Impaired (KAiMaL) in 2010, pupils with visual impairments were learning braille codes according to the initiatives and flexibility of the subject teachers. Initially, students were learning Alphabetic Braille (Barclay, Herlich, & Sacks, 2010) followed with Contracted Braille based on formulae and procedures prescribed in the Handbook of British Braille Prime (1992).

According to D'Andrea (2009), braille code has developed as a methodology that represents the printed text for individuals with visual impairments. According to Kway (2012), braille code is the medium for literacy activities ...view middle of the document...

In the context of English language learning among students with visual impairments, they are required to master two types of braille code in the process of learning languages (Basic Module for The Visually Impaired, 2010). Highlights of previous studies found that phonetic awareness in braille literacy is linked to the cognitive operation of process of second language acquisition among students with visual impairment and correlated with the first language (L1) (Cummin, 1981). In other words, the first language also influences the operation of second language acquisition (Lord, 2008).

Language Literacy
According Argyropoulos and Martos (2006), basic literacy formed the foundation for the education. Literacy development often receives serious attention from all parties (Rex, Koenig, Wormsley & Baker, 1995). The term literacy is often linked with a person's ability to understand and write for everyday demands. According to Troughton (2009), basic literacy skills are a continuous contour of a variety of other technical literacies. In the context of the acquisition of language among pupils with visual impairment, Gillon & Young, 2002; McCall, McLinden, & Gouglas, 2011, stated that the evolution of literacy for braille users and sighted users are the same. The statement was agreed by Kway (2012), which alleged that the literacy skills of students with visual impairment are as important as the typical students.

Orthography Skill
Orthography skill is among the most important component of literacy as well as oral language, phonological and phonemic awareness, word identification, text comprehension, writing, vocabulary, reading fluency, and skill to remember and reuse the words that have been taught (Harris, 1995). Observers have noted that the spelling skill will be a wonderful indicator to determine the level of reading skills for an individual in the early stages of literacy development (Ehri, 2005; Ehri & Wilce, 1987; Lombardino, Bedford, Fortier, Carter, & Brandi, 1997). (Ehri, 2005; Ehri & Wilce, 1987; Lombardino, Bedford, Fortier, Carter, & Brandi, 1997). Furthermore, the spelling was also employed as the measure for classifying an individual's level of academic achievement. According to Larsen, Hammill, & moats (1999), spelling is a procedure that is uncomplicated but really significant for setting the level of education of a person. From a linguistic perspective, Argyropoulos & Martos (2006) and Beers (2003) commented spelling is a blending process to asses pupils' ability to understand the text and evaluate pupils' awareness of the missives of the alphabet and letter sounds.
In fact, spelling is a part that is rather difficult for visually impaired students because they need to learn to read and write braille code. The Braille users need more time in determining the full spelling of the dictated words, and using the words in literacy activities. Various studies have indicated spelling proficiency among students with visual impairment have...

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