On September 11, 2001 a series catastrophic events occurred in New York City, New York. Al-Qaeda planned strategically conducted events, known as suicide attacks. Nineteen al-Qaeda members hijacked four commercial airplanes, including United Airlines Flight 93, American Airlines Flight 11, American Airlines Flight 77 and United Airlines 175. Two of the planes purposely crashed into the World Trade Center buildings. In addition, another plane crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington, VA. and the fourth plane crashed in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Those passengers on the fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, attempted to win control over the plane; however, there were no survivors.
To understand the impact of September 11, ("9/11 by the numbers") New York Magazine published a statistical report about the causalities. According to the report approximately, 343 firefighters, 23 New York Police Officers and 2,016 World Trade Center employees died. Furthermore, officials discovered nearly 20,000 body parts and 289 bodies intact. Moreover, on September 12, 2010, (Edelman) the casualty toll had risen, 44 survivors committed suicide, 49 died of a drug overdose and 14 were murdered. Also, 664 survivors died because of diseases and illnesses contracted from the collapsing towers, including cancers and lung disease from inhaling toxic smoke and dust.
According to the stages of crises, the first stage is detection; detection focuses on the warning signs for unfortunate events and occurrences. On September 5, 2002, (Press) The Associated Press published a timeline with events leading to September 11. On February 26, 1993, a bomb exploded in the World Trade Center Garage, killing 6 and wounding 1,000. Afterward, Islamic extremist received convictions. Over 5 years later, on August 28, 1998, FBI accused Bin Laden of declaring a “holy war” against the United States. In addition, the FBI accused Bin Laden of creating al-Qaeda to promote Islamic Fundamentalism and force non-Muslims out of Muslim countries. Additionally, on October 12, 2000, suicide bombers in Yemen attacked U.S. Navy destroyer USS Cole, killing 177 sailors; Bin Laden accused of coordinating attack.
In a report (Brush) on May 17, 2002, entitled “What Bush Knew Before Sept. 11,” states those months prior to the attacks, the former president received information that Bin Laden’s al-Qaeda would hijack U.S. planes from a document called the President’s Daily Brief. This document did not elaborate on the attacks; however, the potential damage to the pentagon and several other government buildings arose. Initially, Bush informed federal agencies, but not the public. However, once he placed domestic agencies on terroristic alerts, he publicly announced his plan; furthermore, leading some officials to believe that al-Qaeda changed their initial plans.
Failure to communicate is often to blame for September 11. On August 7, 2006, (O'Connor) the Alternet explored the lackluster communication between U.S....