Over the course of the years, society has been reformed by new ideas of science. We learn more and more about global warming, outer space, and technology. However, this pattern of gaining knowledge did not pick up significantly until the Scientific Revolution. In the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the Scientific Revolution started, which concerned the fields of astronomy, mechanics, and medicine. These new scientists used math and observations strongly contradicting religious thought at the time, which was dependent on the Aristotelian-Ptolemy theory. However, astronomers like Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton accepted the heliocentric theory. Astronomical findings of the Scientific Revolution disproved the fact that humans were the center of everything, ultimately causing people to question theology’s role in science and sparking the idea that people were capable of reasoning for themselves.
The cosmological views of the Late Middle Ages revolved around the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic theory. This theory was adapted by the Church to explain the universe, as a result, many people believed the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic theory was perfect because the pope believed it, and he was infallible. The Church took many ideas from the Bible. One example would be that they believed that the universe was six thousand years old. Another major idea was that the universe was made up of a series of concentric spheres with a motionless earth at the center. Planets, commonly referred to as “heavenly bodies”, were made up of crystalline substance and moved in circular orbits. Stars are attached to these planets and are “pushed by angels”.
The view of humanity during the Late Middle Ages was that humans did not know everything and were not supposed to. However, God was omnipotent, therefore he knew everything. The Late Middle Ages’ ideas were tuned to theology. Everything on earth was imperfect while all that in space was perfect because God’s kingdom was outside of the earth. A popular idea was that heavy things fall faster while lighter things sink to the ground slowly. This idea was adapted by the Church to explain the admission into heaven. Those who are an overall better person will “rise” up to heaven while those who are not-so-good will “sink” into the center of the earth into hell. As a result, everything was related and backed up by theology. These concepts would later be weakened by scientists of the Scientific Revolution.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a German astronomer who believed in the heliocentric theory. Kepler is a clear example of the narrow line that separated science and religion. Nonetheless, his ideas would show that things could be solved through reason alone. He believed that the harmony of the human soul could be found through numerical relationships that existed between planets. He found that the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Uranus, Jupiter, and Saturn all revolved at different times. For example, the earth revolved...