The Impact the Bauhaus had on Art
During the 1920s, new technologies changed culture around the world. This period of rapid development was known as the Jazz Age. During the Jazz Age, new styles of art and architecture were created (Hewes; Ellis and Esler 527). The Bauhaus, a school building, was a major contributor to the changing art forms in the fields of art, architecture, and technology (Craven).
The Bauhaus was a school in Weimer, Germany. It was founded in 1919 by a German architect named Walter Gropius. The goal behind the Bauhaus was to bring the arts together into a new age of modern art or, as Gropius described, “Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all get back to craft” (Borteh). Gropius expressed this idea in the Proclamation of the Bauhaus, a document by Gropius that stated the Bauhaus was a “utopian craft guild” that combined architecture, sculpture, and painting (Wilson). This idea attracted many highly experienced staff members.
The staff at the school included such art figures as Wassily Kandinsky, Joseph Albers, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee, and Johannes Itten. Architectual figures at the school included Ludwig Mies van der Rode and Gropius himself. The only designer at the school was Marcel Breur. The staff members participated in one movement, the Arts and Crafts movement (Borteh).
The Arts and Crafts movement occurred during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Its aim was “to bring artists and craftsmen together.” The movement developed from the fear that art was being lost to the up and coming manufacturing field (“The Bauhaus”). However, Gropius knew manufacturing would be a big part of the future and promoted art that could be mass-produced by factories. In 1923, the school’s slogan became “Art into Industry” to reflect this concept of combining art and industry (Wilson).
The “Art into Industry” idea encouraged students to recognize any errors in their projects and fix them. This technique changed the description of art from ‘fine arts’ to ‘visual arts’ to describe art as more of a “research science” (Borteh). This theory was reflected in the courses offered at the school.
Typography was offered at the school. It was taught by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. He encouraged students to use visual clarity and appeal while commercializing artworks. In the course, he incorporated the use of photography and font change into advertising. Most students that took the class went on to work in the field of corporal advertising and business identity (Wilson). Other courses at the Bauhaus led to careers in the field of art as well.
One of the most popular courses at the Bauhaus was Metalworking. In Metalworking, students wielded and shaped metals to be used as furniture and tools. Specifically, they created light fixtures and tableware which were then used in the Bauhaus building. The workshop was one of the most successful at creating prototypes for mass production. Some famous designers from this courses include Marianne...