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The Implications Of Rapid Urbanization Essay

1977 words - 8 pages

Urbanization is the process of human migration from rural areas to towns and cities, thus rapid urbanization means that the rate at which the migration from rural to urban takes place is hurried that a country has no time to plan for their existence at the cities. The situation differs from country to country as the number of cities and rural areas in the countries are different. Another possible reason for the difference is the development nature of the countries; some countries are developed, others are developing while others are considered least developed. Urbanization in developed areas can be traced from the industrialization era when the populace migrated from the rural/ancestral home to towns in search of employment.

According to a report compiled by the University of Michigan, the percentage of the human global population living in cities in 1950 was less than 30% and by the year 2000, the figure stood at 47%. The study predicted that by 2025, the figure would be at 60% (World watch, 2011). Rapid migration is as a result of factors which induce the migrations from rural to urban; these factors have been categories into two broad groups- push and pull factors. Push factors are those factors that are influenced by the conditions of the rural areas thus making people move away into cities. Pull factors on the other hand are the incentives that attract people to the cities. Examples of push factors may be political instability of the rural area, insecurity, low standard of education, unemployment, and scarcity of resources. Pull factors are the promise of what is missing at the rural areas: employment, better education, better lifestyle, variety of resources, better health facilities, and a some what political stable condition among other personal reasons. Different policies of a country also propels the rural to urban migration; Mexico for instance maneuvered the migration by maintaining the food price in urban areas at a low cost thus farmers in the rural areas felt misused as they would not reap any profit by selling food to urban areas. They abandoned farming and moved to the urban areas making the Mexico City to be among the top largest cities with rapid urbanization. Urbanization and especially the Rapid ones come with implications; both positive and negative. Other countries especially developing and less developed are not well prepared for the growth in population at the cities thus causing a strain on the available resources. Global negative implications are increase in traffic, environmental pollution, overcrowding among public institutions and facilities and increase in the cost of life at the cities (University of Michigan, 2006).

A common problem among African cities is the poor hygienic conditions that have been brought by the rapid urbanization. From Nairobi in Kenya to Lagos in Nigeria and Windhoek in Namibia, rapid urbanization has led to the debilitating environment; vast slum dwellings, inadequate water...

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