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The Importance Of Biotechnology In Today's Time

3554 words - 15 pages

Biotechnology is the third wave in biological science and represents such an interface of basic and applied sciences, where gradual and subtle transformation of science into technology can be witnessed. Biotechnology is defined as the application of scientific and engineering principals to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services. Biotechnology comprises a number of technologies based upon increasing understanding of biology at the cellular and molecular level.The Bible already provides numerous examples of biotechnology. Namely, it deals with the conversion of grapes to wine, of dough to bread and of milk to cheese. The oldest biotechnological processes ...view middle of the document...

2. White biotechnology, also known as grey biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes when used to produce industrial goods.3. Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example is the designing of an organism to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.4. The term blue biotechnology has also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.Broadly biotechnology can be divided into two major branches:a. Non-gene biotechnology- deals with whole cell, tissues or even individual organismsb. Gene biotechnology- involves gene manipulation, cloning, etc.Non-gene biotechnology is a more popular practice, and plant tissue culture, hybrid seed production, microbial fermentation, production of hybridoma antibodies or immunochemicals are wide spread biotechnology practices.For centuries humans have used microorganisms to produce foods and drinks without understanding the microbial processes underlying their production. In recent years the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory control mechanisms used by microorganisms for production of several metabolites has been increased by developing the knowledge of biochemistry of industrially important organisms. Notable biotechnologies for food processing include fermentation technology, enzyme technology and monoclonal antibody technology. Beneficial microbes participate in fermentation processes, producing many useful metabolites such as enzymes, organic acids, solvents, vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics, growth regulators, flavors and nutritious foods. Some leading food bioprocessing technologies are dairy processing, alcohol and beverage processing. Production of alcoholic beverages include: wine, beer, whiskey, rum, shake, etc. utilizing microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum, Lecuonostoc mesenteroides, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rizopus sp., Mucor sp., etc. Biotechnologically produced organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid, gluconic acid, D-Lactic acid, fumaric acid, etc. also has very high market value.The application of biotechnology can result in (a) new ways of producing existing products with the use of new inputs, and (b) new ways of producing new products. Examples of the former include the production of gasoline from...

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