The Importance Of Deoxy Ribo Nucleic Acid

986 words - 4 pages

Nucleic Acids are the sole reason we human beings are different from a banana, from an elephant, or from a chimpanzee. All living things in this world are unique because of the order of 4 bases arranged in different patterns to form DNA. DNA is the blueprint for every organism. The blueprint needed to build us resides in most of our cells. This information is a sequence of four nucleotides arranged in a specific pattern. For example, cows have 80% of a human's DNA. DNA provides the map of the proteins and genes we express in each individual, and without it, we would be a totally different person. Besides DNA, nucleic acids also perform other functions in our body, but the role it plays in the formation of DNA is the most important.
Let's break down what DNA really is. DNA stands for Deoxy-ribo Nucleic Acid. Deoxy means that there is a missing oxygen atom in the sugar on the second carbon in DNA. It is the only chemical difference between the sugar molecule Deoxy-ribose and the regular sugar ribose. Ribo means that there is a sugar. Now, what does the word Nucleic mean? The word comes from a German word Nuklein, meaning comes from the nucleus. Therefore, DNA is an acid that has sugar, but has no oxygen. DNA is made of nucleotides, but what does that really mean? There are only 4 types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. All 4 of these are nucleic acids. These bond together with a Hydrogen bond. Adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine. The “backbone” of the DNA is the phosphate group and the ribo group bonded by covalent bonds. What is the difference between RNA and DNA? Well, as discussed before, there is one oxygen atom missing from the sugar in DNA, but there are more differences. DNA is a right handed double helix, meaning it is depicted as a ladder twisted to the right around an imaginary axis. RNA is only one strand, meaning it is only half of a ladder. DNA, as we said before, uses adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. RNA uses uracil instead of thymine when it is in use, but why does humanity even need DNA and RNA?

Whenever someone is short, or they have blue eyes, they always say, “Its in the genes.”, but what does that really mean? There is 6 ft of DNA in almost every cell, folded up into a tiny package. One tiny part of a strand of DNA is a gene. We have about 25,000 genes, and each one codes for something else. So really, you're saying “Its in my DNA”. On the other hand, chromosomes are long strands of DNA that have been neatly packaged. We have 23 pairs of DNA, so we have 46 chromosomes total. The most important chromosome is the one that determies if you are male...

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