Have you ever wondered why sodium is so important in our day to day lives? Sodium is one fo the top 5 most commonly used chemical compounds in our surroundings. When you close this page you will know everything about sodium!
The periodic symbol for sodium is (Na), it’s atomic number is 11 and the mass number for sodium is 22.99, however this can be rounded to 23. In an atom of sodium there are 11 protons, protons are small subatomic particles that have positive charge. There are 11 electrons and 12 neutrons. Electrons are the similar to protons, however they have a negative charge, not positive. Neutrons are another subatomic particle that does not have an electric charge. The electron configuration of sodium is 2, 8 and 1 and the nuclear charge is 11, this is because sodium had 11 protons.
Sodium the element:
As shown diagram 2, sodium is a metal. This means it can form a bond by bonding metalically, bonding covalently will not work because only non-metals can form covalent bonds.
Metals form giant structures in which electrons can move freely in the outer shell. The metallic bonding is the power of attraction between these free electrons and metal ions. Sodium is an extremely malleable metal with a silver colour which can be cut with a knife at room temperature. The boiling and melting points are considerably high at 883C for boiling and 97.72C for the melting point. Sodium is also a very good conductor of electricity. Sodium is a metal therefore it doesn’t form covalent bonds, only non-metals can for covalent. The “sea of electrons” is electrons that can move without restrictions within the molecular orbitals, so each electron detaches from its “parent” atom. The atoms are most commonly said to be ‘delocalised’. The metal is held together by the tough forces of attraction amongst the positive nuclei and the delocalized electrons.
Covalent bonding is he sharing of electrons between atoms. When the element or elements are close to each other on the periodic table the type of bonding occurs. This bonding is generally only formed between non-metals.
Ionic Bonding is the transfer of electrons between atoms. This chemical bond forms two oppositely charged ions, a positive and negative charged ion. In these bonds, the metal loses electrons to develop into a positively charged cation, whereas the non-metals receive those electrons to form into a negatively charged anion.
The molecules of charged ions with opposite charges are called IONIC. These ionic compounds are mostly solids with high melting points and are good conductors of electricity; sodium is capable of forming ionic compounds as it is one of the elements that do have high melting points and are good conductors of electricity. Ionic compounds are commonly constructed from metal and a non-metal. An example of one compound is Sodium Chloride, it’s formula is (NaCl) and the equation is:...