The Interactions between Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory: What is the Messaging Protocol?
Computers store data in memory, and simulate human memory when they achieve this. It might be easy to predict the mechanism of how computer memory works, but the function of human memory is much more sophisticated. Basically, the role of memory is to retain information, store them and retrieve when it is necessary. According to Bunuel (1984)," You have to begin to lose your memory, if only in bits and pieces, to realize that memory is what makes our lives. Life without memory is no life at all. Our memory is our coherence, our reason, our feeling, even our action. Without it, we ...view middle of the document...
Long -term memory is associated with the cortex in the brain. LTM is defined as the system that keeps knowledge for a long period of time. Long-term memory has two main aspects. The first one is the episodic memory which is related to personal experiences while the second one is the semantic memory which is knowledge of words, concepts, symbols and objects. Surprisingly, cognitive researchers believe that short- term memory is a reflection of long-term memory. However, others argue that these two types of memory function differently.
Thus, the link between STM and LTM is still a controversial issue. Since memory has been of interest to psycholinguists and researchers, many tend to decode the message passing between these two major components of memory.
Is there a messaging protocol that may link both ? To what extent each one can affect the other?
This paper analyzes the studies that have been conducted to look at the underlying relationship between STM and LTM through the demonstration of a body of research conducted in this field.
2. Retrieving from Short -Term Memory
Information is stored in STM for a short period of time, and it is retrieved from there. Of course, there are processes that occur during such. There is a task introduced by Sternberg (2004) to determine the recall mechanism. In this task, a set of seven items is presented one at a time, and the participants go over a memory test item which is called a probe. The participants must decide whether this probe is on the set or not.
Figure 1.1. Sternberg Task Diagram which is used to understand how people retrieve items from STM.
The Serial Exhaustive Search theory is interested in how people scan from STM memories to remember things. To illustrate how the Serial Exhaustive works, a graph is designed which has two lines. Positive line which represents the period of time that takes people to confirm that the item is in STM, and negative line that reflects that this item is not in STM. So what happens actually is that there is a complete scan of the memory occurring just to search for the item in question whether it will be in STM or not.
Figure 1.2. Serial Exhaustive Search Theory. The positive red line represents the time when the probe is found in STM, and the negative blue line reflects that the probe is not in STM.
3. Episodic Memory Recall
When it comes to LTM, episodic memory plays a major role in the retrieval process. This relies on the processes of medial temporal lobe and the processes of frontal lobe.
Actually, there are retrieval cues such as faces that trigger and bring back all the details. This cue is connected to a part which is stored in the representation. This process is known as the pattern completion (McClelland et al 1995). The medial temporal lobes are fundamentals in the process because memories are stored there. As it appears that the episodic retrieval is strongly linked to pattern completion. This in...