The invention and development of the battery would have to be one of the most significant in human history. Without batteries, the world would be a very different place. Everything would be plugged in and nothing would be mobile. There are many types of batteries that work in many different ways, but they all have the same common goal of making lives easier. Some examples of these batteries are lithium-ion, lead-acid, and nickel-cadmium.
Lithium-ion batteries are the most accepted battery for portable equipment such as laptops and cellphones. The density of these batteries is normally twice that of nickel-cadmium making them more desirable for portable devices. The chemistry of these batteries is better for the environment because it causes nearly no harm when disposed of.
Advantages of these batteries are that it has a high density of energy and still has room to improve for future applications. This type of battery doesn’t need “priming” for first uses compared to other batteries. Also, it has a very low self-discharge, meaning the battery can retain its charge for prolonged periods of time. Furthermore, compared to other batteries, it can provide higher current to power tools and a more consistent power output, all the way until the battery is nearly dead.
This battery does have a couple limitations such as circuit protection to maintain voltage and current levels. Also, when this battery is not in use it still continues to age. It has a limited number of life cycles until the battery starts to lose capacity. Lithium-ion batteries are also more expensive to manufacture when compared to other batteries on the market.
Overall, the advantages of lithium-ion batteries outweigh the disadvantages, thus making it a great candidate for the portable electronic market. When these batteries are being stored it is best to have them around 40% charged to help prolong their life. This battery may last longer when it doesn’t go through a full cycle, meaning 100% to 0% charged. In conclusion, lithium-ion batteries are the ideal battery for portable devices.
Lead-based batteries are another type of cell. The lead-acid battery was invented in 1859 and was the first rechargeable battery. Even though it is the oldest type of rechargeable battery, the lead chemistry is still a popular choice used in the world today.
There are good reasons for the wide use of the lead-acid battery. Lead acid is reliable and not very expensive on a cost-per-watt base. There are not many other cells that can deliver power at such a cheap rate. Even though the battery has a low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, it has the ability to supply very high surge currents. This ability gives the battery a high power-to-weight ratio that makes it cost-effective for automobiles, golf carts, forklifts, and marine supplies (Battery University). Other advantages include a low-self discharge (lowest among rechargeable batteries) and good low and high temperature...