Military intervention, in the form of coup d’états and military revolutions, has always had a bad reputation for creating unstable autocratic and totalitarian regimes, such as those of the Soviet Russia and North Korea. These new forms of oppressive government are like a ticking time bomb, however, with a matter of time before they explode – dissatisfaction with the government and its policies inevitably turns into mass protests and demonstrations, intent on destroying the oppression and establishing a new, fresh and free way of life.
One of such countries is Egypt. It is a country with one of the longest and most profound histories, stretching back three millennia with its grand ancient civilization, to its Greek, Roman and Ottoman occupation, and leading to modern Egypt as we know it – rocked by frequent changes of government, and finally, the Revolution of 1952, also known as the July 23 Revolution.
The effects of the Revolution were gradual over a period of time. It began as a bloodless coup d’état. A group called the Committee of the Free Officers' Movement, consisting of nine young army officers and led by Lieutenant General Muhammad Naguib, toppled the monarchy of King Farouk with the ambition of creating a corruption-free and representative government. The coup resulted in the Egyptian Republic, as supervised by the Revolutionary Command Council which mostly composed of army officers. General Muhammad Naguib was elected President of the Republic of Egypt and President of the Egyptian Army Officers Club.
The newly founded Republic was already off to a shaky start, however. Less than a month after the Revolution took place, a strike at the Misr Company textile factories at Kafr and Dawwar involving more than ten thousand workers prompted the newly established government to send in military troops, resulting in several lives lost and many arrests (Beinin, and Lockman 421). A military court was set up to for the trials of the dissidents, two of whom were swiftly executed. Strikes by workers in many sectors of the economy continued to plague the country, and the Naguib’s government met each with the same force and brutality.
The Republic also faced problems in international affairs. The RCC wanted to end the long standing British involvement in Egypt. The conflict was based upon two issues: the British occupation at the Suez bases and the Egyptian desire for the sovereignty of Sudan. By October 1954, Nasser signed an agreement providing for the withdrawal of all British troops, with a provision that the British base could be reactivated in the event Egypt was attacked (PBWorks).
Domestic and international problems weren’t the only that the Republic was facing – conflict between President Naguib and the other RCC members was escalating. Naguib desired to phase out the military’s political influence and establish civilian rule. His belief that the military’s role should be restricted to protecting those in power and that it shouldn’t...