In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia this is the most exciting era regarding medical genetics, where programs based on genetic counseling are widely spread amongst the region. Concerned about the fact that conceiving a genetically defected child in the Kingdom has become a common case amongst many families; many have shown interest towards this subject and has accepted genetic counseling the best and the most accurate method to detect genetic defects in premarital and prenatal stages.
Amongst the most common characteristics of Arab societies, which have various effects on the genetic sequence of the people within the Arabic region, are the early marriages, intermarriage, and the continuation of having children until menopause. Intermarriages are strongly entrenched in the Arab societies as it is an old tradition and a part of their culture .There is no doubt that the spread of this phenomenon has an impact on the genetic combination of the people in these countries because we are combining some of the recessive genes in many people, which may express itself in some types of disorders and genetic diseases that appear in higher percentages that we do not find in marriages to non-relatives .
Genetic diseases are a wide range of diseases which occurs as a result of a mutation or a defect in one or more of the genes carried by the chromosomes which are situated within the nucleus of every cell in our body . These genes are responsible for how we look like and how our body functions by a very complicated mechanism, the transfer of inherited traits from one generation to another , as well as the transfer of genetic traits is more possible when it occurs within people from the same blood line. Consequently, any defect in a gene for any reason (which is not known yet, but studies are being conducted regarding this issue) will lead to deformation of either the organ, part of the body, or a defect in the function of that organ .
The genetic disorders naturally are chronic and therefore, patients with genetic disorders require continuous medical care and support. Usually genetic disorders cause economical, physical, and psychological burden on their family and can create a great issue amongst the community . The genetically defected people are a heterogeneous group which results in defects of the genetic material. Congenital malformations and a few genetic defects may be a result of exposure to prolonged radiation or various drugs; commonly infectious diseases during pregnancy of the mother such as viruses or toxoplasma, and rubella are another cause of genetic disorders . Genetic disorders may also be a result of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and various environmental factors. On the other hand genetic disorders can be inherited from parents, which include sickle cell anemia and other major diseases . Therefore, such conditions could be detected through a procedure called "Genetic Screening" which is...