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The Layers Of The Earth Essay

2154 words - 9 pages

There are many different layers within the Earth. The core is at center of the Earth.The Earth's core takes up sixteen percent of Earth's volume, containing thirty-three percent of its Mass ..Pressure rises steadily inside the earth because of the weight of overlying rock. Therefore ,the Pressure at the outer boundary of the core reaches 1.37 million atmospheres, 3.7 million Atmospheres. The core is made mostly of iron and nickel and possibly smaller amounts of lighter elements including sulfur and oxygen. The core is about 4,400 miles in diameter of Earth and about the size of Mars. The outmost 1400 miles of the core is liquid. Geologist believe the innermost part of the core about 1600 miles, is made of similar material as the outer core, but it is solid. The inner core is about 4/5 as big as Earth's moon. It is estimated that the temperature in the deep interior is in fact thought to be about 5400 degrees Fahrenheit (3000 degrees Celsius) at the core-mantle boundary, and at the center perhaps 7300 degrees Fahrenheit (4000 degrees Celsius).Beneath the crust, extending down about 1800 miles is a thick layer called the mantle Earth's crust floats on the mantle much as a board floats in water. The mantle makes up 83% of Earth's volume. It is about 1800 miles thick and the deeper you go the more dense and heavy the Rocks from which it is made become. The mantle is composed mostly of silicon, oxygen, iron, and Magnesium. The temperature at the top of the mantle is less than 1300 degrees Fahrenheit(700 Degrees Celsius) under continental crust .At the bottom, where the mantle contacts Earth's outer Core, the temperature is roughly 7000 degrees Fahrenheit (4000 degrees Celsius). Mantle rock Is hotter than about 2400 degrees Fahrenheit (1300 degrees Celsius) can flow much as a glacier creeps down a mountain valley.The crust is the outermost layer of rocks making up the solid Earth. Most of the Crust can be classified either as 'continental' or 'oceanic'. These two types of crust differ in their average age, composition, thickness and mode of origin. Continental crust is on average older more silica-rich and thicker than oceanic crust. The oldest parts of the continental crust, known as 'shields' or 'cratons' include some rocks that are nearly four billion years old. Most of the rest of the continental crust consists of the roots of mountain belts, known as 'orogens' formed at different stages in Earth's history. The average thickness of the continental crust is about 40km , but beneath parts of the Andes and the Himalayas mountain ranges the crust is more than 70 km thick.Oceanic crust underlies most of the two-thirds of the Earths surface which is covered by the oceans.It has a remarkably uniform composition and thickness. The ocean floor is the most dynamic part of The Earth's surface. As a result no part of the oceanic crust existing today is more than 200 million Years old, which is less than five percent of the age of the Earth itself. New oceanic...

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